Under God in the Pledge
Pros and Cons
Video exploring critical thinking and how it leads to great citizen involvement
Should the Words "under God" Be in the US Pledge of Allegiance?
Under God in the Pledge
The Pledge of Allegiance was first written in 1892 for a magazine contest, and it read: "I Pledge Allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands; one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all." The Pledge became part of the US Flag Code in 1942, and in 1954 President Eisenhower and Congress added the phrase "under God” into the Pledge.

Proponents of including "under God" in the Pledge argue that the United States is a Christian nation, at least 80% of Americans support the phrase, the language reflects America’s civic culture and is not a religious statement, and federal law, state constitutions, and US currency already contain references to God.

Opponents contend that church and state should be kept strictly separate as the Founding Fathers intended. They argue that the Constitution protects minority rights against majority will, and that the words "under God" in the Pledge are a religious phrase and thus violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.

Core Question
Top 10 Pros & Cons
Did You Know?
Historical Timeline
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Under God in the Pledge ProCon.org is a nonpartisan, nonprofit website that presents research, studies, and pro and con statements on questions related to religion and the pledge of allegiance in the US.

Pros & Cons by Category
CORE QUESTION
The Founding Fathers
Religion and the Founding of the US
Religion and the State
Pledge of Allegiance - Companion Address
Majority Rule v. Minority Rights
Pledge of Allegiance and the First Amendment
Pledge of Allegiance and US Law
Pledge of Allegiance and Religion
References to God in US Currency
References to God in Court and Presidential Oaths
References to God in US Code
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9/10/2014  NEW ProCon.org Website! – Should students have to wear school uniforms? - Our 51st website explores the pros and cons in the debate over mandatory school uniforms. Almost one in five US public schools required students to wear uniforms during the 2011-2012 school year, up from one in eight in 2003-2004. Proponents say that school uniforms make schools safer for students, create a "level playing field" that reduces socioeconomic disparities, and encourage children to focus on their studies rather than their clothes. Opponents say school uniforms infringe upon students' right to express their individuality, have no positive effect on behavior and academic achievement, and emphasize the socioeconomic disparities they are intended to disguise.

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Last updated on 11/7/2013 8:40:02 AM PST

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