Under God in the Pledge
Pros and Cons
Video exploring critical thinking and how it leads to great citizen involvement
Should the Words "under God" Be in the US Pledge of Allegiance?
Under God in the Pledge
The Pledge of Allegiance was first written in 1892 for a magazine contest, and it read: "I Pledge Allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands; one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all." The Pledge became part of the US Flag Code in 1942, and in 1954 President Eisenhower and Congress added the phrase "under God” into the Pledge.

Proponents of including "under God" in the Pledge argue that the United States is a Christian nation, at least 80% of Americans support the phrase, the language reflects America’s civic culture and is not a religious statement, and federal law, state constitutions, and US currency already contain references to God.

Opponents contend that church and state should be kept strictly separate as the Founding Fathers intended. They argue that the Constitution protects minority rights against majority will, and that the words "under God" in the Pledge are a religious phrase and thus violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.

Core Question
Top 10 Pros & Cons
Did You Know?
Historical Timeline

Under God in the Pledge ProCon.org is a nonpartisan, nonprofit website that presents research, studies, and pro and con statements on questions related to religion and the pledge of allegiance in the US.

Pros & Cons by Category
The Founding Fathers
Religion and the Founding of the US
Religion and the State
Pledge of Allegiance - Companion Address
Majority Rule v. Minority Rights
Pledge of Allegiance and the First Amendment
Pledge of Allegiance and US Law
Pledge of Allegiance and Religion
References to God in US Currency
References to God in Court and Presidential Oaths
References to God in US Code
Donate to ProCon.org

Share your thoughts on under god and read, vote on, and reply to existing comments. Join the debate.

Teacher Survey

Notices for Under God and Other ProCon.org Information (archived after 30 days)

1/23/2015 – Authors who have cited ProCon.org in the past include Glenn Beck, Mark Bittman, Newt Gingrich, Stefan Halper, Dick Morris, Condoleezza Rice, Michael Schmoker, Tavis Smiley, and Joseph Stiglitz.

1/21/2015 - ProCon.org referenced 462 times by media outlets in 2014 - News organizations such as Wall Street Journal, New York Times, USA Today, Washington Post, Forbes, Rolling Stone, PBS, and ESPN cited and linked to our research 462 times in 2014, a 34% increase over 2013.

1/9/2015 - 50 Famous Quotes about Critical Thinking - Read illustrated quotes about critical thinking from Albert Einstein, Thomas Jefferson, Martin Luther King, Jr., and other famous thinkers from Aristotle to Howard Zinn.

Archived Notices (archived after 30 days)

Last updated on 11/7/2013 8:40:02 AM PST

Please enter a valid email address to continue.
Privacy Policy Do not show again.
DONATE - Donate to ProCon.org - DONATE
Visit the ProCon.org community on:

© 2014 ProCon.org, a 501(c)(3) nonprofit     |   233 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 200, Santa Monica, CA 90401    |    Tel: 310-451-9596