Should the Words "under God" Be in the US Pledge of Allegiance?

The Pledge of Allegiance was first written in 1892 for a magazine contest, and it read: "I Pledge Allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands; one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all." The Pledge became part of the US Flag Code in 1942, and in 1954 President Eisenhower and Congress added the phrase "under God” into the Pledge.

Proponents of including "under God" in the Pledge argue that the United States is a Christian nation, at least 80% of Americans support the phrase, the language reflects America’s civic culture and is not a religious statement, and federal law, state constitutions, and US currency already contain references to God.

Opponents contend that church and state should be kept strictly separate as the Founding Fathers intended. They argue that the Constitution protects minority rights against majority will, and that the words "under God" in the Pledge are a religious phrase and thus violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.


PROS & CONS BY CATEGORY
CORE QUESTION

The Founding Fathers

Religion and the Founding of the US

Religion and the State

Pledge of Allegiance - Companion Address

Majority Rule v. Minority Rights

Pledge of Allegiance and the First Amendment

Pledge of Allegiance and US Law

Pledge of Allegiance and Religion

References to God in US Currency

References to God in Court and Presidential Oaths

References to God in US Code







Notices for Under God and Other ProCon.org Information (archived after 30 days)
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Archived Notices

Last updated on 12/1/2017 11:13:42 AM PST

The Pledge of Allegiance was first written in 1892 for a magazine contest, and it read: "I Pledge Allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands; one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all." The Pledge became part of the US Flag Code in 1942, and in 1954 President Eisenhower and Congress added the phrase "under God” into the Pledge.

Proponents of including "under God" in the Pledge argue that the United States is a Christian nation, at least 80% of Americans support the phrase, the language reflects America’s civic culture and is not a religious statement, and federal law, state constitutions, and US currency already contain references to God.

Opponents contend that church and state should be kept strictly separate as the Founding Fathers intended. They argue that the Constitution protects minority rights against majority will, and that the words "under God" in the Pledge are a religious phrase and thus violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.

PROS & CONS BY CATEGORY
CORE QUESTION

The Founding Fathers

Religion and the Founding of the US

Religion and the State

Pledge of Allegiance - Companion Address

Majority Rule v. Minority Rights

Pledge of Allegiance and the First Amendment

Pledge of Allegiance and US Law

Pledge of Allegiance and Religion

References to God in US Currency

References to God in Court and Presidential Oaths

References to God in US Code

Should Churches Remain Tax-Exempt?


Religion in the Original 13 Colonies


Founding Fathers on Religion in Government











Notices for Under God and Other ProCon.org Information (archived after 30 days)
ProCon.org Used by Educators in More than 10,000 Schools!
2/1/2018 - We thank the teachers in 10,037 schools who have used our free resources in your instructional materials. Our amazing community consists of 3,524 elementary and middle schools (35.1%), 4,692 high schools (46.7%), and 1,821 colleges and universities (18.1%) in all 50 states and 92 countries. Visit the Teachers' Corner to find your school and see how educators are using ProCon.org in the classroom. Or join the community by taking our 2-minute survey.

Archived Notices

Last updated on 12/1/2017 11:13:42 AM PST