68 References to "God" in US Code

As of Aug. 2006, the United States Code contained 68 mentions of "God." 46 of these references were in shipping and environmental codes that discussed "acts of God." The "God" references have been italicized and made bold for easy reference.

The 22 other references to "God" are presented below in the order of most recently amended.

Reference to "God"
1. Education - Strengthening and Improvement of Elementary and Secondary Schools: "Boy Scouts of America Equal Access Act" 20 USC Sec. 7905 Jan. 8, 2002 "(b)(1) Equal Access - Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no public elementary school, public secondary school, local educational agency, or State educational agency that has a designated open forum or a limited public forum and that receives funds made available through the Department shall deny equal access or a fair opportunity to meet to, or discriminate against, any group officially affiliated with the Boy Scouts of America, or any other youth group listed in title 36 (as a patriotic society), that wishes to conduct a meeting within that designated open forum or limited public forum, including denying such access or opportunity or discriminating for reasons based on the membership or leadership criteria or oath of allegiance to God and country..."

2. Armed Forces: Rules of Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces - Qualifications to Practices 10 USC Append. Oct. 22, 2001 "(e) Each applicant shall take or subscribe the following oath or affirmation:
'I ***, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support the Constitution of the United States, and that I will conduct myself, as an attorney and counselor of this Court, uprightly and according to law. So help me God.'"

3. Money and Finance: Coins and Currency 31 USC Sec. 5112 Nov. 6, 2000 "(d)(1) United States coins shall have the inscription 'In God We Trust.' The obverse side of each coin shall have the inscription 'Liberty'. The reverse side of each coin shall have the inscription 'United States of America' and 'E Pluribus Unum' and a designation of the value of the coin."

4. Patriotic and National Observances, Ceremonies, and Organizations - National Day of Prayer 36 USC Sec. 119 Aug. 12, 1998 "The President shall issue each year a proclamation designating the first Thursday in May as a National Day of Prayer on which the people of the United States may turn to God in prayer and meditation at churches, in groups, and as individuals." [First effective Apr. 17, 1952]

5. Patriotic and National Observances, Ceremonies, and Organizations - National Motto 36 USC Sec. 302 Aug. 12, 1998 "'In God we trust' is the national motto." [First effective July 30, 1956]

6. Patriotic and National Observances, Ceremonies, and Organizations - Army and Navy Union of the U.S.A. 36 USC Sec. 22903 Aug. 12, 1998 "The purposes of the corporation are as provided in the articles of incorporation and include -
(2) serving our Nation under God in peace as well as in war by fostering the ideals and faith of patriotism, loyalty, justice, and liberty, by inculcating in the hearts of young and old, through percept and practice, the spirit of true Americanism, and by participating in civic activities for the good of our country and community..."

7. Patriotic and National Observances, Ceremonies, and Organizations - Catholic War Veterans of the U.S.A., Inc. 36 USC Sec. 40103 Aug. 12, 1998 "The purposes of the corporation are as provided in the articles of incorporation and include a continuing commitment, on a national basis, to -
(12) increase our love, honor, and service to God and to our fellow man without regard to race, creed, color, or national origin..."

8. Flag and Seal, Seat of Government, and the States 4 USC Sec. 4 Aug. 12, 1998 "The Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag: 'I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.', should be rendered by standing at attention facing the flag with the right hand over the heart." [First effective without phrase "under God" as of June 22, 1942. Effective with phrase "under God" as of June 14, 1954.]

9. Judiciary and Judicial Procedure: Rules of The United States Court of International Trade - Attorneys; Admission to Practice 28 USC Append. July 1, 1998 "(b)(2) The applicant shall be admitted either (A) upon oral motion by a members of the bar of this court or of the Supreme Court of the United States, before a judge of this court who will administer the following oath: 'I, ______, do solemnly swear (or affirm)...so help me God.'"

10. Judiciary and Judicial Procedure: The U.S. Court of Federal Claims - Attorneys 28 USC Append. Dec. 4, 1992 "...may be admitted to practice in this court upon oral motion or by verified application, as provided in this rule, and upon taking or subscribing to the following oath: 'I, _______, do solemnly swear (or affirm),...so help me God.'"

11. Judiciary and Judicial Procedure: Oaths of justices and judges 28 USC Sec. 453 Dec. 1, 1990 "Each justice or judge of the United States shall take the following oath or affirm before performing the duties of his office: 'I, _______, do solemnly swear (or affirm),...So help me God.'"

12. Armed Forces - Personnel; Enlistments 10 USC Sec. 502 Nov. 29, 1989 "Each person enlisting in an armed force shall take the following oath:
"...So help me God.'"

13. National Guard - Personnel; Enlistment Oath 32 USC Sec. 304 Sep. 29, 1988 "Each person enlisting in the National Guard shall sign an enlistment contract and subscribe to the following oath:
'...So help me God."'

14. Armed Forces: Personnel - Uniform Code of Military Justice 10 USC Sec. 802 Mar. 28, 1988 "If I become a prisoner of war...I will never forget that I am an American, fighting for freedom, responsible for my actions, and dedicated to the principles which made my country free. I will trust my God and in the United States of America."
15. Patriotic and National Observances, Ceremonies, and Organizations - National Floral Emblem 36 USC Sec. 303 Nov. 20, 1986 "The flower commonly known as the rose is the national floral emblem." Proc. No. 5574, 11/20/86, by President Ronald Reagan: "Americans have always loved the flowers with which God decorates our land. More often than any other flower, we hold the rose dear as the symbol of life and love and devotion, of beauty and eternity. For the love of man and woman, for the love of mankind and God, for the love of country, Americans who would speak the language of the heart do so with a rose.

The American people have long held a special place in their hearts for roses. Let us continue to cherish them, to honor the love and devotion they represent, and to bestow them on all we love just as God has bestowed them on us."

16. Money and Finance: Coins and Currency 31 USC Sec. 5114 Sep. 13, 1982 "(b) United States currency has the inscription 'In God We Trust' in a place the Secretary [of the Treasury] decides is appropriate."

17. Government Organization and Employees - Oath of Office 5 USC Sec. 3331 Sep. 6, 1966 "An individual, except the President, elected or appointed to an office of honor or profit in the civil service or uniformed services, shall take the following oath, 'I, ...So help me God.'"

18. Armed Forces - Navy and Marine Corps: Personnel - Administration; Chaplains: divine services 10 USC Sec. 6031 Aug. 7, 1959 "(b) The commanders of vessels and naval activities to which chaplains are attached shall cause divine service to be performed on Sunday, whenever the weather and other circumstances allow it to be done; and it is earnestly recommended to all officers, seamen, and others in the naval service diligently to attend at every performance of the worship of Almighty God."

19. National Guard - Personnel - Appointment Oath 32 USC Sec. 312 Aug. 10, 1956 "Each person who is appointed as an officer of the National Guard shall subscribe to the following oath: '...so help me God.'"

20. War and National Defense Proc. No. 2914 - National Emergency, 1950 50 USC App. Dec. 16, 1950 "WHEREAS, if the goal of communist imperialism were to be achieved, the people of this country would no longer enjoy the full and rich life they have with God's help built for themselves and their children...NOW, THEREFORE, I, HARRY S. TRUMAN, President of the United States of America, do proclaim the existence of a national emergency, which requires that the military, naval, air, and civilian defenses of this country be strengthened as speedily as possible to the end that we may be able to repeal any and all threats against our national security..."

21. Territories and Insular Possessions: Guam - The Legislature - Oath of Office 48 USC Sec. 1423d Aug. 1, 1950 "Every member of the legislature and all officers of the government of Guam shall take the following oath or affirmation:
'I solemnly swear (or affirm) in the presence of Almighty God..."

22. Judiciary and Judicial Procedure: Court Officers and Employees - Oath of Office of clerks and deputies 28 USC Sec. 951 June 25, 1948 "Each clerk of court and his deputies shall take the following oath or affirmation before entering upon their duties: 'I, ...So help me God.'"


Note: Although not part of the United States of America, the Constitution o f the Confederate States of America (Mar. 11, 1861) begins with the preamble:

"We, the people of the Confederate States, each State acting in its sovereign and independent character, in order to form a permanent federal government, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity invoking the favor and guidance of Almighty God do ordain and establish this Constitution for the Confederate States of America." [bolding emphasis added]
Constitution of the Confederate States of America . (PDF 75KB)