Last updated on: 3/4/2009 | Author: ProCon.org

Alfred Theodore Goodwin, JD Biography

Title:
Senior Judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
Position:
Con to the question "Should the Words “under God” Be in the US Pledge of Allegiance?"
Reasoning:

“To recite the Pledge is not to describe the United States; instead, it is to swear allegiance to the values for which the flag stands: unity, indivisibility, liberty, justice, and – since 1954 – monotheism. The text of the official Pledge, codified in federal law, impermissibly takes a position with respect to the purely religious question of the existence and identity of God.”

Elk Grove School District v. Newdow, June 26, 2002

Theoretical Expertise Ranking:
    Experts
Individuals with JD's, or equivalent advanced degrees in fields relevant to government and constitutional law. Also top-level government officials (such as foreign leaders, US presidents, Founding Fathers, Supreme Court Justices, members of legislative bodies, cabinet members, military leaders, etc.) with positions relevant to government and constitutional law.
Involvement and Affiliations:
  • Senior Judge, United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, 1971-present
  • Chief Judge, United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, 1988-1991
  • Judge, United States District Court of Oregon, 1969-1971
  • Judge, Supreme Court of the State of Oregon, 1960-1969
  • Judge, Circuit Court of the State of Oregon, 1955-1960
  • Attorney, private practice, Eugene, Oregon, 1951-1955
  • Army Captain, United States Army, 1943-1946
Education:
  • JD, Law, University of Oregon, 1951
  • BA, Law, University of Oregon, 1949
Other:
  • Gave written majority opinion in Elk Grove School District v. Newdow