Last updated on: 2/22/2013 | Author: ProCon.org

Source Biographies

"Should the Words “under God” Be in the US Pledge of Allegiance?"
Summary of Positions

Pro Not Clearly Pro or Con (NC) Con None Found (?)
I. Individual 60 (38.5%) 11 (7.1%) 33 (21.2%) 52 (33.3%)
II. Organization 37 (33.6%) 1 (0.9%) 23 (20.9%) 49 (44.5%)

Sort by alphabetical order, Sort by position

I. Individual
- Pro -
Individuals Rating Position
Akin, W. Todd, MDiv     Pro
Allen, George, JD     Pro
Banning, Sandra L.   Pro
Barton, David   Pro
Beckstrom, Darryn, MA   Pro
Biden, Joe, JD     Pro
Bonta, Steve, PhD     Pro
Bowman, Louis Andrew, JD   Pro
Brennan, William J., JD     Pro
Brownback, Sam, JD     Pro
Burns, Conrad     Pro
Bush, George W., MBA     Pro
Church, Forrest, PhD     Pro
Davis, Derek, JD, PhD     Pro
Dobson, James C., PhD     Pro
Drakeman, Donald, JD, PhD     Pro
Eisenhower, Dwight D.     Pro
Falwell, Jerry   Pro
Farah, Joseph   Pro
Federer, William J.   Pro
Feingold, Russ, JD     Pro
Feldman, Noah, JD, PhD     Pro
Fernandez, Ferdinand F., JD     Pro
Flax, Bill   Pro
Franks, Trent     Pro
Frist, Bill, MD     Pro
Goldson, Yonason   Pro
Gonzales, Alberto, JD     Pro
Hasson, Kevin Seamus, JD     Pro
Hitchcock, James, PhD     Pro
Huntington, Samuel P., JD     Pro
Inglis, Bob, JD     Pro
Kempthorne, Dirk     Pro
Kennedy, D. James, PhD     Pro
Kupelian, David   Pro
Kurtz, Paul, PhD     Pro
Kyl, Jon, LLB     Pro
Lieberman, Joe, LLB     Pro
Marylander, Grant, JD     Pro
McCain, John     Pro
Moore, Roy S., JD     Pro
Muñoz, Vincent Phillip, PhD     Pro
O'Connor, Sandra Day, LLB     Pro
Obama, Barack, JD     Pro
Olson, Theodore B., JD     Pro
Paige, Rod, PhD     Pro
Parsley, Rod   Pro
Pelosi, Nancy     Pro
Rehnquist, William, JD     Pro
Rios, Sandy   Pro
Robertson, Pat, JD     Pro
Roy, Lisa Shaw, JD     Pro
Safire, William   Pro
Sandoz, Ellis, PhD     Pro
Scalia, Antonin, LLB     Pro
Schneider, Tom   Pro
Staver, Mathew, JD     Pro
West, Thomas G., PhD     Pro
Williams, Karen J., JD     Pro
Zavaletta, Joseph A., JD     Pro
- Con -
Individuals Rating Position
Barker, Dan   Con
Boston, Rob   Con
Buckner, Ed, PhD     Con
Carroll, Jon   Con
Chemerinsky, Erwin, JD     Con
Choper, Jesse, LLB     Con
Cline, Austin, MA   Con
Curry, Rex, JD     Con
Dershowitz, Alan M., LLB     Con
Epstein, Steven, JD     Con
Fink, Dan   Con
Gaddy, C. Welton, PhD     Con
Gasaway, Brantley, PhD     Con
Goodwin, Alfred Theodore, JD     Con
Hamilton, Marci A., JD     Con
Hansen, Collin   Con
Jacoby, Susan   Con
Karlton, Lawrence K., JD     Con
Laycock, Douglas, JD     Con
Lynn, Barry W., JD   Con
Mauro, Tony, MS   Con
McGraw, Barbara A., JD, PhD     Con
Newdow, Michael, JD, MD     Con
O'Donnell, Patrick S., MA   Con
Prescott, Bruce, PhD     Con
Reinhardt, Stephen R., LLB     Con
Remes, David H., JD     Con
Sager, Lawrence G., LLB     Con
Scheer, Robert   Con
Sherman, Rob   Con
Shiffrin, Steven H., JD     Con
Thompson, John E., JD     Con
Van Alstyne, William W., JD     Con
- None Found -
Individuals Rating Position
Adams, John     ?
Balch, George T.   ?
Barlow, Joel   ?
Bellamy, Francis   ?
Bonomi, Patricia U., PhD     ?
Boykin, William   ?
Brewer, David J., JD     ?
Butler, John, PhD     ?
Cohen, Charles L., PhD     ?
Davis, Kenneth C.   ?
Ellis, Richard J., PhD     ?
Epps, Garrett, JD, LLM     ?
Fleischer, Ari   ?
Franklin, Benjamin     ?
Goldwater, Barry     ?
Grossberger, Lewis   ?
Guenter, Scot, PhD     ?
Guthrie, William Norman   ?
Hall, Mark David, PhD     ?
Hamilton, Alexander     ?
Henry, Patrick     ?
Heyrman, Christine, PhD     ?
Hogan, Michael, PhD     ?
Jay, John     ?
Jayne, Allen, PhD     ?
Jefferson, Thomas     ?
Kelly, Charles "Chuck" M., PhD   ?
Madison, James     ?
Mason, George     ?
Meacham, Jon   ?
Montopoli, Brian   ?
Morgan, Bill   ?
Morris, David, PhD     ?
Novak, Michael   ?
O'Leary, Brad   ?
Paine, Thomas     ?
Pearlston, Carl B., JD     ?
Powell, Garland W.   ?
Reagan, Ronald W.     ?
Roosevelt, Theodore     ?
Rove, Karl   ?
Rutman, Yisrael   ?
Santorum, Rick, JD, MBA     ?
Shuck, John, MDiv   ?
Smolin, David M., JD     ?
Vidal, Gore   ?
Waldman, Steven   ?
Warren, Earl, JD     ?
Washington, George     ?
Wikstrom, Erik Walker, MDiv   ?
Wolff, Tobias B., JD     ?
Yarbrough, Tinsley E., PhD     ?
II. Organization
- Pro -
Organizations Rating Position
Alliance Defense Fund (ADF)   Pro
American Center for Law and Justice (ACLJ)   Pro
American Family Association   Pro
American Jewish Congress, Inc.   Pro
American Legion   Pro
Becket Fund for Religious Liberty   Pro
Catholic League for Religious and Civil Rights   Pro
Center for Individual Freedom   Pro
Center for Public Justice   Pro
Christian Educators Association International (CEAI)   Pro
Christian Legal Society   Pro
Claremont Institute   Pro
Common Good Foundation   Pro
Concerned Women for America   Pro
Family Research Council   Pro
Focus on the Family   Pro
Foundation for Moral Law   Pro
Grassfire (formerly Grassfire.net)   Pro
Knights of Columbus   Pro
Liberty Counsel   Pro
Los Angeles Times    Pro
National Clergy Council   Pro
National Education Association (NEA)   Pro
National Forum Foundation (NFF)   Pro
National Jewish Commission on Law and Public Affairs (COLPA)   Pro
National Legal Foundation   Pro
National School Boards Association (NSBA)   Pro
Pacific Justice Institute   Pro
Pacific Legal Foundation (PLF)   Pro
Pacific Research Institute   Pro
Rutherford Institute   Pro
Thomas More Law Center   Pro
US Department of Justice (DOJ)   Pro
US House of Representatives   Pro
US Senate   Pro
WallBuilders   Pro
Your Catholic Voice Foundation   Pro
- Not Clearly Pro or Con -
Organizations Rating Position
First Amendment Center   NC
- Con -
Organizations Rating Position
American Atheists   Con
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)   Con
American Humanist Association   Con
Americans United for Separation of Church and State (AU)   Con
Anti-Defamation League (ADL)   Con
Association of Humanistic Rabbis (AHR)   Con
Atheist Community of Austin   Con
Atheist Law Center   Con
Atheists and Other Freethinkers   Con
Atheists For Human Rights   Con
Church of Freethought   Con
Council for Secular Humanism   Con
Freedom From Religion Foundation   Con
Humanist Society   Con
HUUmanists   Con
Institute for Humanist Studies (IHS)   Con
James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF)   Con
Rob Sherman Advocacy   Con
Seattle Atheists   Con
Secular Coalition for America   Con
Society for Humanistic Judaism   Con
Universal Pantheist Society (UPS)   Con
World Pantheist Movement   Con
- None Found -
Organizations Rating Position
ABC News    ?
Adventist News Network (ANN)   ?
American Journalism Review   ?
American Religion Data Archive (ARDA)   ?
Associated Press    ?
Bliss Institute   ?
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)    ?
C-Span    ?
Cable News Network (CNN)    ?
CBS News    ?
Church Growth Research Center   ?
Columbia Encyclopedia   ?
Connecticut Humanities Council (CHC)   ?
Cornell Law Review   ?
Daily Nebraskan   ?
Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR)   ?
Early America Review   ?
Education Commission of the States (ECS)   ?
Ekklesia   ?
First Things   ?
FOX News    ?
Gallup Organization   ?
Graduate Center of the City University of New York (CUNY)   ?
Guardian Unlimited (U.K.)    ?
Harvard Civil Rights - Civil Liberties Law Review    ?
International Social Survey Program (ISSP)   ?
Ipsos North America   ?
Jehovah's Witnesses United   ?
Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary    ?
New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia   ?
New Anatolian    ?
New York Times   ?
Newsweek    ?
NJ.com    ?
Oregon Law Review    ?
Pew Research Center   ?
Reuters    ?
San Jose Mercury News    ?
Slovak Spectator    ?
SurveyUSA   ?
US Department of State   ?
US Department of the Treasury   ?
US National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)   ?
US Supreme Court   ?
Washington Post    ?
Washington Times    ?
Wikipedia   ?
World Almanac for Kids   ?