Last updated on: 2/3/2009 | Author: ProCon.org

Pledge Protection Act 2005 (HR 2389) Overview

I. Summary
II. Vote Summary
III. Geographic Chart of Votes
IV. Vote Totals by Representatives
V. Related Links

I. Summary

Associated Press writer Jim Abrams reported on July 20, 2006:

“Legislation [Pledge Protection Act aka H. R. 2389] to bar federal courts from ruling on constitutional issues arising from the Pledge of Allegiance, including the ‘one nation, under God’ reference, passed the House after lawmakers argued that the pledge is linked to the nation’s spiritual history.

Opponents countered that such a law, a priority of social conservatives, would undercut judicial independence and deny access to federal courts to religious minorities seeking to defend their rights.”

July 20, 2006 Associated Press   

Rep. Todd Akin, Republican from Missouri, introduced the House Bill HR 2389 known as the Pledge Protection Act 2005 on May 17, 2005. It would amend title 28 of United States Code with respect to the jurisdiction of Federal courts over certain cases and controversies involving the Pledge of Allegiance. On July 19, 2006 the bill passed the House of Representatives by roll call vote. On Aug. 4, 2004 it was recieved by the Senate. This bill is identical to S.1046 which was intoduced on May 17, 2005 but has not passed. The 109th Senate is expected to end Oct. 6, 2006.

See the full text of Pledge Protection Act 2005 (PDF)

II. Vote Summary
The bill passed the House of Representatives on July 19, 2006 with:   Ayes Nays Not Voting
  • 260 Ayes
Democrat 39 158 4
  • 167 Nays
Republican 221 8 1
  • 5 Not Voting
Independent 0 1 0

III. Geographic Chart of Votes


IV. Vote Totals

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

Representative’s Name District Vote
Abercrombie, Neil [D] HI-01 Nay
Ackerman, Gary [D] NY-05 Nay
Aderholt, Robert [R] AL-04 Aye
Akin, W. [R] MO-02 Aye
Alexander, Rodney [R] LA-05 Aye
Allen, Thomas[D] ME-01 Nay
Andrews, Robert [D] NJ-01 Nay
Baca, Joe [D] CA-43 Nay
Bachus, Spencer [R] AL-06 Aye
Baird, Brian [D] WA-03 Nay
Baker, Richard [R] LA-06 Aye
Baldwin, Tammy [D] WI-02 Nay
Barrett, James [R] SC-03 Aye
Barrow, John [D] GA-12 Aye
Bartlett, Roscoe [R] MD-06 Aye
Barton, Joe [R] TX-06 Aye
Bass, Charles [R] NH-02 Aye
Bean, Melissa [D] IL-08 Nay
Beauprez, Bob [R] CO-07 Aye
Becerra, Xavier [D] CA-31 Nay
Berkley, Shelley [D] NV-01 Nay
Berman, Howard [D] CA-28 Nay
Berry, Robert [D] AR-01 Aye
Biggert, Judy [R] IL-13 Nay
Bilbray, Brian [R] CA-50 Aye
Bilirakis, Michael [R] FL-09 Aye
Bishop, Rob [R] UT-01 Aye
Bishop, Sanford [D] GA-02 Aye
Bishop, Timothy [D] NY-01 Nay
Blackburn, Marsha [R] TN-07 Aye
Blumenauer, Earl [D] OR-03 Nay
Blunt, Roy [R] MO-07 Aye
Boehlert, Sherwood [R] NY-24 Aye
Boehner, John [R] OH-08 Aye
Bonilla, Henry [R] TX-23 Aye
Bonner, Jo [R] AL-01 Aye
Bono, Mary [R] CA-45 Aye
Boozman, John [R] AR-03 Aye
Boren, Dan [D] OK-02 Aye
Boswell, Leonard [D] IA-03 Aye
Boucher, Frederick [D] VA-09 Aye
Boustany, Charles [R] LA-07 Aye
Boyd, F. [D] FL-02 Aye
Brady, Kevin [R] TX-08 Aye
Brady, Robert [D] PA-01 Nay
Brown, Corrine [D] FL-03 Nay
Brown, Henry [R] SC-01 Aye
Brown, Sherrod [D] OH-13 Nay
Brown-Waite, Virginia [R] FL-05 Aye
Burgess, Michael [R] TX-26 Aye
Burton, Dan [R] IN-05 Aye
Butterfield, George [D] NC-01 Nay
Buyer, Stephen [R] IN-04 Aye
Calvert, Ken [R] CA-44 Aye
Camp, David [R] MI-04 Aye
Campbell, John [R] CA-48 Aye
Cannon, Christopher [R] UT-03 Aye
Cantor, Eric [R] VA-07 Aye
Capito, Shelley [R] WV-02 Aye
Capps, Lois [D] CA-23 Nay
Capuano, Michael [D] MA-08 Nay
Cardin, Benjamin [D] MD-03 Nay
Cardoza, Dennis [D] CA-18 Nay
Carnahan, Russ [D] MO-03 Aye
Carson, Julia [D] IN-07 Nay
Carter, John [R] TX-31 Aye
Case, Ed [D] HI-02 Nay
Castle, Michael [R] DE-00 Aye
Chabot, Steven [R] OH-01 Aye
Chandler, Ben [D] KY-06 Aye
Chocola, Chris [R] IN-02 Aye
Clay, William [D] MO-01 Nay
Cleaver, Emanuel [D] MO-05 Nay
Clyburn, James [D] SC-06 Nay
Coble, John [R] NC-06 Aye
Cole, Tom [R] OK-04 Aye
Conaway, K. [R] TX-11 Aye
Conyers, John [D] MI-14 Nay
Cooper, Jim [D] TN-05 Nay
Costa, Jim [D] CA-20 Aye
Costello, Jerry [D] IL-12 Aye
Cramer, Robert [D] AL-05 Aye
Crenshaw, Ander [R] FL-04 Aye
Crowley, Joseph [D] NY-07 Nay
Cubin, Barbara [R] WY-00 Aye
Cuellar, Henry [D] TX-28 Aye
Culberson, John [R] TX-07 Aye
Cummings, Elijah [D] MD-07 Nay
Davis, Artur [D] AL-07 Nay
Davis, Danny [D] IL-07 Nay
Davis, Geoff [R] KY-04 Aye
Davis, James [D] FL-11 Nay
Davis, Jo Ann [R] VA-01 Aye
Davis, Lincoln [D] TN-04 Aye
Davis, Susan [D] CA-53 Nay
Davis, Thomas [R] VA-11 Aye
Deal, Nathan [R] GA-10 Aye
DeFazio, Peter [D] OR-04 Nay
DeGette, Diana [D] CO-01 Nay
Delahunt, William [D] MA-10 Nay
DeLauro, Rosa [D] CT-03 Nay
Dent, Charles [R] PA-15 Aye
Diaz-Balart, Lincoln [R] FL-21 Aye
Diaz-Balart, Mario [R] FL-25 Aye
Dicks, Norman [D] WA-06 Nay
Dingell, John [D] MI-15 Nay
Doggett, Lloyd [D] TX-25 Nay
Doolittle, John [R] CA-04 Aye
Doyle, Michael [D] PA-14 Nay
Drake, Thelma [R] VA-02 Aye
Dreier, David [R] CA-26 Aye
Duncan, John [R] TN-02 Aye
Edwards, Thomas [D] TX-17 Aye
Ehlers, Vernon [R] MI-03 Aye
Emanuel, Rahm [D] IL-05 Nay
Emerson, Jo Ann [R] MO-08 Aye
Engel, Eliot [D] NY-17 Nay
English, Philip [R] PA-03 Nay
Eshoo, Anna [D] CA-14 Nay
Etheridge, Bob [D] NC-02 Aye
Evans, Lane [D] IL-17 No Vote
Everett, Terry [R] AL-02 Aye
Farr, Sam [D] CA-17 Nay
Fattah, Chaka [D] PA-02 Nay
Feeney, Tom [R] FL-24 Aye
Ferguson, Michael [R] NJ-07 Aye
Filner, Bob [D] CA-51 Nay
Fitzpatrick, Michael [R] PA-08 Aye
Flake, Jeff [R] AZ-06 Nay
Foley, Mark [R] FL-16 Aye
Forbes, James [R] VA-04 Aye
Ford, Harold [D] TN-09 Aye
Fortenberry, Jeffrey [R] NE-01 Aye
Fossella, Vito [R] NY-13 Aye
Foxx, Virginia [R] NC-05 Aye
Frank, Barney [D] MA-04 Nay
Franks, Trent [R] AZ-02 Aye
Frelinghuysen, Rodney [R] NJ-11 Aye
Gallegly, Elton [R] CA-24 Aye
Garrett, E. [R] NJ-05 Aye
Gerlach, Jim [R] PA-06 Aye
Gibbons, James [R] NV-02 Aye
Gilchrest, Wayne [R] MD-01 Nay
Gillmor, Paul [R] OH-05 Aye
Gingrey, John [R] GA-11 Aye
Gohmert, Louis [R] TX-01 Aye
Gonzalez, Charles [D] TX-20 Nay
Goode, Virgil [R] VA-05 Aye
Goodlatte, Robert [R] VA-06 Aye
Gordon, Barton [D] TN-06 Aye
Granger, Kay [R] TX-12 Aye
Graves, Samuel [R] MO-06 Aye
Green, Al [D] TX-09 Nay
Green, Mark [R] WI-08 Aye
Green, Raymond [D] TX-29 Aye
Grijalva, Raul [D] AZ-07 Nay
Gutierrez, Luis [D] IL-04 No Vote
Gutknecht, Gilbert [R] MN-01 Aye
Hall, Ralph [R] TX-04 Aye
Harman, Jane [D] CA-36 Nay
Harris, Katherine [R] FL-13 Aye
Hart, Melissa [R] PA-04 Aye
Hastings, Alcee [D] FL-23 Nay
Hastings, Doc [R] WA-04 Aye
Hayes, Robert [R] NC-08 Aye
Hayworth, John [R] AZ-05 Aye
Hefley, Joel [R] CO-05 Aye
Hensarling, Jeb [R] TX-05 Aye
Herger, Walter [R] CA-02 Aye
Higgins, Brian [D] NY-27 Nay
Hinchey, Maurice [D] NY-22 Nay
Hinojosa, Ruben [D] TX-15 Aye
Hobson, David [R] OH-07 Aye
Hoekstra, Peter [R] MI-02 Aye
Holden, Tim [D] PA-17 Aye
Holt, Rush [D] NJ-12 Nay
Honda, Michael [D] CA-15 Nay
Hooley, Darlene [D] OR-05 Nay
Hostettler, John [R] IN-08 Aye
Rep. Hoyer, Steny [D] MD-05 Nay
Hulshof, Kenny [R] MO-09 Aye
Hunter, Duncan [R] CA-52 Aye
Hyde, Henry [R] IL-06 Aye
Inglis, Bob [R] SC-04 Nay
Inslee, Jay [D] WA-01 No Vote
Israel, Steve [D] NY-02 Nay
Issa, Darrell [R] CA-49 Aye
Istook, Ernest [R] OK-05 Aye
Jackson, Jesse [D] IL-02 Nay
Jackson-Lee, Sheila [D] TX-18 Nay
Jefferson, William [D] LA-02 Nay
Jenkins, William [R] TN-01 Aye
Jindal, Bobby [R] LA-01 Aye
Johnson, Eddie [D] TX-30 Nay
Johnson, Nancy [R] CT-05 Aye
Johnson, Samuel [R] TX-03 Aye
Johnson, Timothy [R] IL-15 Aye
Jones, Stephanie [D] OH-11 Nay
Jones, Walter [R] NC-03 Aye
Kanjorski, Paul [D] PA-11 Nay
Kaptur, Marcy [D] OH-09 Nay
Keller, Ric [R] FL-08 Aye
Kelly, Sue [R] NY-19 Aye
Kennedy, Mark [R] MN-06 Aye
Kennedy, Patrick [D] RI-01 Nay
Kildee, Dale [D] MI-05 Nay
Kilpatrick, Carolyn [D] MI-13 Nay
Kind, Ronald [D] WI-03 Nay
King, Peter [R] NY-03 Aye
King, Steve [R] IA-05 Aye
Kingston, Jack [R] GA-01 Aye
Kirk, Mark [R] IL-10 Aye
Kline, John [R] MN-02 Aye
Knollenberg, Joseph [R] MI-09 Aye
Kolbe, James [R] AZ-08 Nay
Kucinich, Dennis [D] OH-10 Nay
Kuhl, John [R] NY-29 Aye
Representative’s Name District Vote
LaHood, Ray [R] IL-18 Aye
Langevin, James [D] RI-02 Nay
Lantos, Tom [D] CA-12 Nay
Larsen, Rick [D] WA-02 Nay
Larson, John [D] CT-01 Nay
Latham, Thomas [R] IA-04 Aye
LaTourette, Steven [R] OH-14 Aye
Leach, James [R] IA-02 Aye
Lee, Barbara [D] CA-09 Nay
Levin, Sander [D] MI-12 Nay
Lewis, Jerry [R] CA-41 Aye
Lewis, John [D] GA-05 Nay
Lewis, Ron [R] KY-02 Aye
Linder, John [R] GA-07 Aye
Lipinski, Daniel [D] IL-03 Aye
LoBiondo, Frank [R] NJ-02 Aye
Lofgren, Zoe [D] CA-16 Nay
Lowey, Nita [D] NY-18 Nay
Lucas, Frank [R] OK-03 Aye
Lungren, Daniel [R] CA-03 Aye
Lynch, Stephen [D] MA-09 Nay
Mack, Connie [R] FL-14 Aye
Maloney, Carolyn [D] NY-14 Nay
Manzullo, Donald [R] IL-16 Aye
Marchant, Kenny [R] TX-24 Aye
Markey, Edward [D] MA-07 Nay
Marshall, James [D] GA-03 Aye
Matheson, Jim [D] UT-02 Aye
Matsui, Doris [D] CA-05 Nay
McCarthy, Carolyn [D] NY-04 Nay
McCaul, Michael [R] TX-10 Aye
McCollum, Betty [D] MN-04 Nay
McCotter, Thaddeus [R] MI-11 Aye
McCrery, James [R] LA-04 Aye
McDermott, James [D] WA-07 Nay
McGovern, James [D] MA-03 Nay
Mchenry, Patrick [R] NC-10 Aye
McHugh, John [R] NY-23 Aye
McIntyre, Mike [D] NC-07 Aye
McKeon, Howard [R] CA-25 Aye
McKinney, Cynthia [D] GA-04 No Vote
Mcmorris, Cathy [R] WA-05 Aye
McNulty, Michael [D] NY-21 Nay
Meehan, Martin [D] MA-05 Nay
Meek, Kendrick [D] FL-17 Nay
Meeks, Gregory [D] NY-06 Nay
Melancon, Charles [D] LA-03 Aye
Mica, John [R] FL-07 Aye
Michaud, Michael [D] ME-02 Nay
Millender-McDonald, Juanita [D] CA-37 Nay
Miller, Candice [R] MI-10 Aye
Miller, Gary [R] CA-42 Aye
Miller, George [D] CA-07 Nay
Miller, Jeff [R] FL-01 Aye
Miller, R. [D] NC-13 Nay
Mollohan, Alan [D] WV-01 Aye
Moore, Dennis [D] KS-03 Nay
Moore, Gwen [D] WI-04 Nay
Moran, James [D] VA-08 Nay
Moran, Jerry [R] KS-01 Aye
Murphy, Tim [R] PA-18 Aye
Murtha, John [D] PA-12 Nay
Musgrave, Marilyn [R] CO-04 Aye
Myrick, Sue [R] NC-09 Aye
Nadler, Jerrold [D] NY-08 Nay
Napolitano, Grace [D] CA-38 Nay
Neal, Richard [D] MA-02 Nay
Neugebauer, Randy [R] TX-19 Aye
Ney, Robert [R] OH-18 Aye
Northup, Anne [R] KY-03 No Vote
Norwood, Charles [R] GA-09 Aye
Nunes, Devin [R] CA-21 Aye
Nussle, James [R] IA-01 Aye
Oberstar, James [D] MN-08 Nay
Obey, David [D] WI-07 Nay
Olver, John [D] MA-01 Nay
Ortiz, Solomon [D] TX-27 Nay
Ortiz, Solomon [D] TX-27 Nay
Osborne, Thomas [R] NE-03 Aye
Otter, C.L. [R] ID-01 Aye
Owens, Major [D] NY-11 Nay
Oxley, Michael [R] OH-04 Aye
Pallone, Frank [D] NJ-06 Nay
Pascrell, William [D] NJ-08 Nay
Pastor, Edward [D] AZ-04 Nay
Paul, Ronald [R] TX-14 Aye
Payne, Donald [D] NJ-10 Nay
Pearce, Steven [R] NM-02 Aye
Pelosi, Nancy [D] CA-08 Nay
Pence, Mike [R] IN-06 Aye
Peterson, Collin [D] MN-07 Aye
Peterson, John [R] PA-05 Aye
Petri, Thomas [R] WI-06 Aye
Pickering, Charles [R] MS-03 Aye
Pitts, Joseph [R] PA-16 Aye
Platts, Todd [R] PA-19 Aye
Poe, Ted [R] TX-02 Aye
Pombo, Richard [R] CA-11 Aye
Pomeroy, Earl [D] ND-00 Nay
Porter, Jon [R] NV-03 Aye
Price, David [D] NC-04 Nay
Price, Tom [R] GA-06 Aye
Pryce, Deborah [R] OH-15 Aye
Putnam, Adam [R] FL-12 Aye
Radanovich, George [R] CA-19 Aye
Rahall, Nick [D] WV-03 Aye
Ramstad, James [R] MN-03 Aye
Rangel, Charles [D] NY-15 Nay
Regula, Ralph [R] OH-16 Aye
Rehberg, Dennis [R] MT-00 Aye
Reichert, Dave [R] WA-08 Aye
Renzi, Rick [R] AZ-01 Aye
Reyes, Silvestre [D] TX-16 Nay
Reynolds, Thomas [R] NY-26 Aye
Rogers, Harold [R] KY-05 Aye
Rogers, Michael [R] AL-03 Aye
Rohrabacher, Dana [R] CA-46 Nay
Ros-Lehtinen, Ileana [R] FL-18 Aye
Ross, Mike [D] AR-04 Aye
Rothman, Steven [D] NJ-09 Nay
Roybal-Allard, Lucille [D] CA-34 Nay
Royce, Edward [R] CA-40 Aye
Ruppersberger, C.A. [D] MD-02 Nay
Rush, Bobby [D] IL-01 Nay
Ryan, Paul [R] WI-01 Aye
Ryan, Timothy [D] OH-17 Nay
Ryun, Jim [R] KS-02 Aye
Sabo, Martin [D] MN-05 Nay
Salazar, John [D] CO-03 Aye
Sanchez, Linda [D] CA-39 Nay
Sanchez, Loretta [D] CA-47 Nay
Sanders, Bernard [I] VT-00 Nay
Saxton, H. [R] NJ-03 Aye
Schakowsky, Janice [D] IL-09 Nay
Schiff, Adam [D] CA-29 Nay
Schmidt, Jean [R] OH-02 Aye
Schwartz, Allyson [D] PA-13 Nay
Schwarz, John [R] MI-07 Aye
Scott, David [D] GA-13 Aye
Scott, Robert [D] VA-03 Nay
Sensenbrenner, F. [R] WI-05 Aye
Serrano, José [D] NY-16 Nay
Sessions, Peter [R] TX-32 Aye
Shadegg, John [R] AZ-03 Aye
Shaw, E. [R] FL-22 Aye
Shays, Christopher [R] CT-04 Nay
Sherman, Brad [D] CA-27 Nay
Sherwood, Donald [R] PA-10 Aye
Shimkus, John [R] IL-19 Aye
Shuster, William [R] PA-09 Aye
Simmons, Robert [R] CT-02 Aye
Simpson, Michael [R] ID-02 Aye
Skelton, Ike [D] MO-04 Aye
Slaughter, Louise [D] NY-28 Nay
Smith, Adam [D] WA-09 Nay
Smith, Christopher [R] NJ-04 Aye
Smith, Lamar [R] TX-21 Aye
Snyder, Victor [D] AR-02 Nay
Sodrel, Michael [R] IN-09 Aye
Solis, Hilda [D] CA-32 Nay
Souder, Mark [R] IN-03 Aye
Spratt, John [D] SC-05 Nay
Stark, Fortney [D] CA-13 Nay
Stearns, Clifford [R] FL-06 Aye
Strickland, Ted [D] OH-06 Nay
Stupak, Bart [D] MI-01 Nay
Sullivan, John [R] OK-01 Aye
Sweeney, John [R] NY-20 Aye
Tancredo, Thomas [R] CO-06 Aye
Tanner, John [D] TN-08 Aye
Tauscher, Ellen [D] CA-10 Nay
Taylor, Charles [R] NC-11 Aye
Taylor, Gene [D] MS-04 Aye
Terry, Lee [R] NE-02 Aye
Thomas, William [R] CA-22 Aye
Thompson, Bennie [D] MS-02 Aye
Thompson, C. [D] CA-01 Nay
Thornberry, William [R] TX-13 Aye
Tiahrt, Todd [R] KS-04 Aye
Tiberi, Patrick [R] OH-12 Aye
Tierney, John [D] MA-06 Nay
Towns, Edolphus [D] NY-10 Aye
Turner, Michael [R] OH-03 Aye
Udall, Mark [D] CO-02 Nay
Udall, Tom [D] NM-03 Nay
Upton, Frederick [R] MI-06 Aye
Van Hollen, Christopher [D] MD-08 Nay
Velazquez, Nydia [D] NY-12 Nay
Visclosky, Peter [D] IN-01 Nay
Walden, Greg [R] OR-02 Aye
Walsh, James [R] NY-25 Aye
Wamp, Zach [R] TN-03 Aye
Wasserman Schultz, Debbie [D] FL-20 Nay
Waters, Maxine [D] CA-35 Nay
Watson, Diane [D] CA-33 Nay
Watt, Melvin [D] NC-12 Nay
Waxman, Henry [D] CA-30 Nay
Weiner, Anthony [D] NY-09 Nay
Weldon, David [R] FL-15 Aye
Weldon, W. [R] PA-07 Aye
Weller, Gerald [R] IL-11 Aye
Westmoreland, Lynn [R] GA-08 Aye
Wexler, Robert [D] FL-19 Nay
Whitfield, Edward [R] KY-01 Aye
Wicker, Roger [R] MS-01 Aye
Wilson, Addison [R] SC-02 Aye
Wilson, Heather [R] NM-01 Aye
Wolf, Frank [R] VA-10 Aye
Woolsey, Lynn [D] CA-06 Nay
Wu, David [D] OR-01 Nay
Wynn, Albert [D] MD-04 Aye
Young, C. W. [R] FL-10 Aye
Young, Donald [R] AK-00 Aye

V. Related Links

1. Should the Pledge of Allegiance be removed from the jurisdiction of federal courts?

2. See the full text of HR 2389. (PDF)

3. Examine the related Senate Pledge Protection Act 2005.

4. View the earlier versions (Pledge Protection Act 2003) from the 108th Congress and (Pledge Protection Act 2002) in the 107th Congress.

5. Research the Congressional Actions on the Pledge of Allegiance.

6. Pledge of Allegiance History 1887-Today