Last updated on: 3/7/2008 | Author:

Pledge Protection Act 2004 (H.R. 2028) Overview

I. Summary
II. Vote Summary
III. Vote Totals by Representatives
IV. Related Links

I. Summary

Rep. Todd Akin, Republican from Missouri, introduced the House Bill known as the Pledge Protection Act 2004 on May 8, 2003. It would amend title 28 of United States Code with respect to the jurisdiction of Federal courts over certain cases and controversies involving the Pledge of Allegiance. On Sept. 23, 2004 the bill passed the House of Representatives by roll call vote. On Sept. 27, 2004 it was received by the Senate. This bill did not become a law.

Pledge Protection Act 2004 stated, “No court created by Act of Congress shall have any jurisdiction, and the Supreme Court shall have no appellate jurisdiction, to hear or decide any question pertaining to the interpretation of, or the validity under the Constitution of, the Pledge of Allegiance, as defined in section 4 of title 4, or its recitation. The limitation in this section shall not apply to the Superior Court of the District of Columbia or the District of Columbia Court of Appeals.”

See the full text of Pledge Protection Act 2004 (PDF)

II. Vote Summary

H.R. 2028 passed the House of Representatives on Sept. 23, 2004 with:   Ayes Nays No Vote
  • 247 Ayes
Democrat 34 166 5
  • 173 Nays
Republican 213 6 8
  • 13 Not Voting
Independent 0 1 0


III. Vote Totals

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

Representative’s Name District Vote
Abercrombie, Neil [D] HI-01 Nay
Ackerman, Gary [D] NY-05 Nay
Aderholt, Robert [R] AL-04 Aye
Akin, W. [R] MO-02 Aye
Alexander, Rodney [R] LA-05 Aye
Allen, Thomas[D] ME-01 Nay
Andrews, Robert [D] NJ-01 Nay
Baca, Joe [D] CA-43 Nay
Bachus, Spencer [R] AL-06 Aye
Baird, Brian [D] WA-03 Nay
Baker, Richard [R] LA-06 Aye
Baldwin, Tammy [D] WI-02 Nay
Ballenger, Cass [R] NC-10 Aye
Barrett, James [R] SC-03 Aye
Bartlett, Roscoe [R] MD-06 Aye
Barton, Joe [R] TX-06 Aye
Bass, Charles [R] NH-02 Aye
Beauprez, Bob [R] CO-07 Aye
Becerra, Xavier [D] CA-31 Nay
Bell, Chris [D] TX-25 Nay
Berkley, Shelley [D] NV-01 Nay
Berman, Howard [D] CA-28 Nay
Berry, Robert [D] AR-01 Aye
Biggert, Judy [R] IL-13 Nay
Bilirakis, Michael [R] FL-09 Aye
Bishop, Rob [R] UT-01 Aye
Bishop, Sanford [D] GA-02 No Vote
Bishop, Timothy [D] NY-01 Nay
Blackburn, Marsha [R] TN-07 Aye
Blumenauer, Earl [D] OR-03 Nay
Blunt, Roy [R] MO-07 Aye
Boehlert, Sherwood [R] NY-24 Aye
Boehner, John [R] OH-08 Aye
Bonilla, Henry [R] TX-23 Aye
Bonner, Jo [R] AL-01 No Vote
Bono, Mary [R] CA-45 Aye
Boozman, John [R] AR-03 Aye
Boswell, Leonard [D] IA-03 Aye
Boucher, Frederick [D] VA-09 Aye
Boyd, F. [D] FL-02 Aye
Bradley, Jeb [R] NH-1 Aye
Brady, Kevin [R] TX-08 Aye
Brady, Robert [D] PA-01 Nay
Brown, Corrine [D] FL-03 Nay
Brown, Henry [R] SC-01 Aye
Brown, Sherrod [D] OH-13 Nay
Brown-Waite, Virginia [R] FL-05 Aye
Burgess, Michael [R] TX-26 Aye
Burns, Max [R] GA-12 Aye
Burr, Richard [R] NC-5 Aye
Burton, Dan [R] IN-05 Aye
Butterfield, George [D] NC-1 Nay
Buyer, Stephen [R] IN-04 Aye
Calvert, Ken [R] CA-44 Aye
Camp, David [R] MI-04 Aye
Cannon, Christopher [R] UT-03 No Vote
Cantor, Eric [R] VA-07 Aye
Capito, Shelley [R] WV-02 Aye
Capps, Lois [D] CA-23 Nay
Capuano, Michael [D] MA-08 Nay
Cardin, Benjamin [D] MD-03 Nay
Cardoza, Dennis [D] CA-18 Nay
Carson, Brad [D] OK-2 Aye
Carson, Julia [D] IN-07 Nay
Carter, John [R] TX-31 Aye
Case, Ed [D] HI-02 Nay
Castle, Michael [R] DE-00 Aye
Chabot, Steven [R] OH-01 Aye
Chandler, Ben [D] KY-6 Aye
Chocola, Chris [R] IN-02 Aye
Clay, William [D] MO-01 Nay
Clyburn, James [D] SC-06 Aye
Coble, John [R] NC-06 Aye
Cole, Tom [R] OK-04 Aye
Collins, Michael [R] GA-8 Aye
Conyers, John [D] MI-14 Nay
Cooper, Jim [D] TN-05 Nay
Costello, Jerry [D] IL-12 Aye
Cox, C. [R] CA-48 Aye
Cramer, Robert [D] AL-05 Aye
Crane, Philip [R] IL-8 Aye
Crenshaw, Ander [R] FL-04 Aye
Crowley, Joseph [D] NY-07 Nay
Cubin, Barbara [R] WY-00 Aye
Culberson, John [R] TX-07 Aye
Cummings, Elijah [D] MD-07 Nay
Cunningham, Randall [R] CA-50 Aye
Davis, Artur [D] AL-07 Nay
Davis, Danny [D] IL-07 Nay
Davis, James [D] FL-11 Nay
Davis, Jo Ann [R] VA-01 Aye
Davis, Lincoln [D] TN-04 Aye
Davis, Susan [D] CA-53 Nay
Davis, Thomas [R] VA-11 Aye
Deal, Nathan [R] GA-10 Aye
DeFazio, Peter [D] OR-04 Nay
DeGette, Diana [D] CO-01 Nay
Delahunt, William [D] MA-10 Nay
DeLauro, Rosa [D] CT-03 Nay
DeLay, Thomas [R] TX-22 Aye
Demint, Jim [R] SC-4 Aye
Deutsch, Peter [D] FL-20 Nay
Diaz-Balart, Lincoln [R] FL-21 Aye
Diaz-Balart, Mario [R] FL-25 Aye
Dicks, Norman [D] WA-06 Nay
Dingell, John [D] MI-15 Nay
Doggett, Lloyd [D] TX-10 Nay
Dooley, Calvin [D] CA-20 Nay
Doolittle, John [R] CA-04 Aye
Doyle, Michael [D] PA-14 Nay
Dreier, David [R] CA-26 Aye
Duncan, John [R] TN-02 Aye
Dunn, Jennifer [R] WA-8 Aye
Edwards, Thomas [D] TX-11 Aye
Ehlers, Vernon [R] MI-03 Aye
Emanuel, Rahm [D] IL-05 Nay
Emerson, Jo Ann [R] MO-08 Aye
Engel, Eliot [D] NY-17 Nay
English, Philip [R] PA-03 Aye
Eshoo, Anna [D] CA-14 Nay
Etheridge, Bob [D] NC-02 Aye
Evans, Lane [D] IL-17 Nay
Everett, Terry [R] AL-02 Aye
Farr, Sam [D] CA-17 Nay
Fattah, Chaka [D] PA-02 Nay
Feeney, Tom [R] FL-24 Aye
Ferguson, Michael [R] NJ-07 Aye
Filner, Bob [D] CA-51 Nay
Flake, Jeff [R] AZ-06 Aye
Foley, Mark [R] FL-16 Aye
Forbes, James [R] VA-04 Aye
Ford, Harold [D] TN-09 Aye
Fossella, Vito [R] NY-13 Aye
Frank, Barney [D] MA-04 Nay
Franks, Trent [R] AZ-02 Aye
Frelinghuysen, Rodney [R] NJ-11 Aye
Frost, Jonas [D] TX-24 Nay
Gallegly, Elton [R] CA-24 Aye
Garrett, E. [R] NJ-05 Aye
Gephardt, Richard [D] MO-03 Nay
Gerlach, Jim [R] PA-06 Aye
Gibbons, James [R] NV-02 Aye
Gilchrest, Wayne [R] MD-01 Nay
Gillmor, Paul [R] OH-05 Aye
Gingrey, John [R] GA-11 Aye
Gonzalez, Charles [D] TX-20 Nay
Goode, Virgil [R] VA-05 Aye
Goodlatte, Robert [R] VA-06 Aye
Gordon, Barton [D] TN-06 Aye
Goss, Porter [R] FL-14 No Vote
Granger, Kay [R] TX-12 Aye
Graves, Samuel [R] MO-06 No Vote
Green, Mark [R] WI-08 Aye
Green, Raymond [D] TX-29 Nay
Greenwood, James [R] PA-8 Aye
Grijalva, Raul [D] AZ-07 Nay
Gutierrez, Luis [D] IL-04 Nay
Gutknecht, Gilbert [R] MN-01 Aye
Hall, Ralph [R] TX-04 Aye
Harman, Jane [D] CA-36 Nay
Harris, Katherine [R] FL-13 Aye
Hart, Melissa [R] PA-04 Aye
Hastings, Alcee [D] FL-23 Nay
Hastings, Doc [R] WA-04 Aye
Hayes, Robert [R] NC-08 Aye
Hayworth, John [R] AZ-05 Aye
Hefley, Joel [R] CO-05 Aye
Hensarling, Jeb [R] TX-05 Aye
Herger, Walter [R] CA-02 Aye
Herseth, Stephanie [D] SD-0 Aye
Hill, Baron [D] IN-9 Nay
Hinchey, Maurice [D] NY-22 Nay
Hinojosa, Ruben [D] TX-15 Nay
Hobson, David [R] OH-07 Aye
Hoeffel, Joesph [D] PA-13 Nay
Hoekstra, Peter [R] MI-02 Aye
Holden, Tim [D] PA-17 Aye
Holt, Rush [D] NJ-12 Nay
Honda, Michael [D] CA-15 Nay
Hooley, Darlene [D] OR-05 Nay
Hostettler, John [R] IN-08 Aye
Houghton, Armory [R] NY-29 Aye
Hoyer, Steny [D] MD-05 Nay
Hulshof, Kenny [R] MO-09 Aye
Hunter, Duncan [R] CA-52 Aye
Hyde, Henry [R] IL-06 Aye
Inslee, Jay [D] WA-01 Nay
Isakson, John [R] GA-6 Aye
Israel, Steve [D] NY-02 Nay
Issa, Darrell [R] CA-49 Aye
Istook, Ernest [R] OK-05 Aye
Jackson, Jesse [D] IL-02 Nay
Jackson-Lee, Sheila [D] TX-18 Nay
Jefferson, William [D] LA-02 Nay
Jenkins, William [R] TN-01 Aye
John, Christopher [D] LA-7 Aye
Johnson, Eddie [D] TX-30 Nay
Johnson, Nancy [R] CT-05 Aye
Johnson, Samuel [R] TX-03 Aye
Johnson, Timothy [R] IL-15 Aye
Jones, Stephanie [D] OH-11 Nay
Jones, Walter [R] NC-03 Aye
Kanjorski, Paul [D] PA-11 Nay
Kaptur, Marcy [D] OH-09 Nay
Keller, Ric [R] FL-08 Aye
Kelly, Sue [R] NY-19 Aye
Kennedy, Mark [R] MN-06 Aye
Kennedy, Patrick [D] RI-01 Nay
Kildee, Dale [D] MI-05 Nay
Kilpatrick, Carolyn [D] MI-13 Nay
Kind, Ronald [D] WI-03 Nay
King, Peter [R] NY-03 Aye
King, Steve [R] IA-05 Aye
Kingston, Jack [R] GA-01 Aye
Kirk, Mark [R] IL-10 Aye
Kleczka, Gerald [D] WI-4 No Vote
Kline, John [R] MN-02 Aye
Representative’s Name District Vote
Knollenberg, Joseph [R] MI-09 Aye
Kolbe, James [R] AZ-08 Nay
Kucinich, Dennis [D] OH-10 Nay
LaHood, Ray [R] IL-18 Aye
Lampson, Nicholas [D] TX-9 Aye
Langevin, James [D] RI-02 Nay
Lantos, Tom [D] CA-12 Nay
Larsen, Rick [D] WA-02 Nay
Larson, John [D] CT-01 Nay
Latham, Thomas [R] IA-04 Aye
LaTourette, Steven [R] OH-14 Aye
Leach, James [R] IA-02 Aye
Lee, Barbara [D] CA-09 Nay
Levin, Sander [D] MI-12 Nay
Lewis, Jerry [R] CA-41 Aye
Lewis, John [D] GA-05 Nay
Lewis, Ron [R] KY-02 Aye
Linder, John [R] GA-07 Aye
Lipinski, Daniel [D] IL-03 Aye
LoBiondo, Frank [R] NJ-02 Aye
Lofgren, Zoe [D] CA-16 Nay
Lowey, Nita [D] NY-18 Nay
Lucas, Frank [R] OK-03 Aye
Lucas, Kenneth [D] KY-4 No Vote
Lynch, Stephen [D] MA-09 Nay
Majette, Denise [D] GA-4 Nay
Maloney, Carolyn [D] NY-14 Nay
Manzullo, Donald [R] IL-16 Aye
Markey, Edward [D] MA-07 Nay
Marshall, James [D] GA-03 Aye
Matheson, Jim [D] UT-02 Aye
Matsui, Robert [D] CA-05 Nay
McCarthy, Carolyn [D] NY-04 Nay
McCarthy, Karen [D] MO-5 Nay
McCollum, Betty [D] MN-04 Nay
McCotter, Thaddeus [R] MI-11 Aye
McCrery, James [R] LA-04 Aye
McDermott, James [D] WA-07 Nay
McGovern, James [D] MA-03 Nay
McHugh, John [R] NY-23 Aye
McInnis, Scott [R] CO-3 Aye
McIntyre, Mike [D] NC-07 Aye
McKeon, Howard [R] CA-25 Aye
McNulty, Michael [D] NY-21 Nay
Meehan, Martin [D] MA-05 Nay
Meek, Kendrick [D] FL-17 Nay
Meeks, Gregory [D] NY-06 Nay
Menendez, Robert [D] NJ-13 Nay
Mica, John [R] FL-07 Aye
Michaud, Michael [D] ME-02 Nay
Millender-McDonald, Juanita [D] CA-37 Nay
Miller, Candice [R] MI-10 Aye
Miller, Gary [R] CA-42 Aye
Miller, George [D] CA-07 Nay
Miller, Jeff [R] FL-01 No Vote
Miller, R. [D] NC-13 Nay
Mollohan, Alan [D] WV-01 Aye
Moore, Dennis [D] KS-03 Nay
Moran, James [D] VA-08 Nay
Moran, Jerry [R] KS-01 Aye
Murphy, Tim [R] PA-18 Aye
Murtha, John [D] PA-12 Nay
Musgrave, Marilyn [R] CO-04 Aye
Myrick, Sue [R] NC-09 Aye
Nadler, Jerrold [D] NY-08 Nay
Napolitano, Grace [D] CA-38 Nay
Neal, Richard [D] MA-02 Nay
Nethercutt, George [R] WA-5 Aye
Neughebauer, Randy [R] TX-19 Aye
Ney, Robert [R] OH-18 Aye
Northup, Anne [R] KY-03 Aye
Norwood, Charles [R] GA-09 Aye
Nunes, Devin [R] CA-21 Aye
Nussle, James [R] IA-01 Aye
Oberstar, James [D] MN-08 Nay
Obey, David [D] WI-07 Nay
Olver, John [D] MA-01 Nay
Ortiz, Solomon [D] TX-27 Nay
Osborne, Thomas [R] NE-03 Aye
Ose, Doug [R] CA-3 Nay
Otter, C.L. [R] ID-01 Aye
Owens, Major [D] NY-11 Nay
Oxley, Michael [R] OH-04 Aye
Pallone, Frank [D] NJ-06 Nay
Pascrell, William [D] NJ-08 Nay
Pastor, Edward [D] AZ-04 Nay
Paul, Ronald [R] TX-14 Aye
Payne, Donald [D] NJ-10 Nay
Pearce, Steven [R] NM-02 Aye
Pelosi, Nancy [D] CA-08 Nay
Pence, Mike [R] IN-06 Aye
Peterson, Collin [D] MN-07 Aye
Peterson, John [R] PA-05 Aye
Petri, Thomas [R] WI-06 Aye
Pickering, Charles [R] MS-03 Aye
Pitts, Joseph [R] PA-16 Aye
Platts, Todd [R] PA-19 Aye
Pombo, Richard [R] CA-11 Aye
Pomeroy, Earl [D] ND-00 Nay
Porter, Jon [R] NV-03 Aye
Portman, Robert [R] OH-2 Aye
Price, David [D] NC-04 Nay
Pryce, Deborah [R] OH-15 Aye
Putnam, Adam [R] FL-12 Aye
Quinn, Jack [R] NY-27 No Vote
Radanovich, George [R] CA-19 Aye
Rahall, Nick [D] WV-03 Aye
Ramstad, James [R] MN-03 Aye
Rangel, Charles [D] NY-15 Nay
Regula, Ralph [R] OH-16 Aye
Rehberg, Dennis [R] MT-00 Aye
Renzi, Rick [R] AZ-01 Aye
Reyes, Silvestre [D] TX-16 Nay
Reynolds, Thomas [R] NY-26 Aye
Rodriguez, Ciro [D] TX-28 Nay
Rogers, Harold [R] KY-05 Aye
Rogers, Michael [R] AL-03 Aye
Rogers, Michael [R] MI-8 Aye
Rohrabacher, Dana [R] CA-46 Nay
Ros-Lehtinen, Ileana [R] FL-18 Aye
Ross, Mike [D] AR-04 Aye
Rothman, Steven [D] NJ-09 Nay
Roybal-Allard, Lucille [D] CA-34 Nay
Royce, Edward [R] CA-40 Aye
Ruppersberger, C.A. [D] MD-02 Nay
Rush, Bobby [D] IL-01 Nay
Ryan, Paul [R] WI-01 Aye
Ryan, Timothy [D] OH-17 Aye
Ryun, Jim [R] KS-02 Aye
Sabo, Martin [D] MN-05 Nay
Sanchez, Linda [D] CA-39 Nay
Sanchez, Loretta [D] CA-47 Nay
Sanders, Bernard [I] VT-00 Nay
Sandlin, Max [D] TX-1 Aye
Saxton, H. [R] NJ-03 Aye
Schakowsky, Janice [D] IL-09 Nay
Schiff, Adam [D] CA-29 Nay
Schrock, Edward [R] VA-2 Aye
Scott, David [D] GA-13 Nay
Scott, Robert [D] VA-03 Nay
Sensenbrenner, F. [R] WI-05 Aye
Serrano, José [D] NY-16 Nay
Sessions, Peter [R] TX-32 Aye
Shadegg, John [R] AZ-03 Aye
Shaw, E. [R] FL-22 Aye
Shays, Christopher [R] CT-04 Nay
Sherman, Brad [D] CA-27 Nay
Sherwood, Donald [R] PA-10 Aye
Shimkus, John [R] IL-19 Aye
Shuster, William [R] PA-09 Aye
Simmons, Robert [R] CT-02 Aye
Simpson, Michael [R] ID-02 Aye
Skelton, Ike [D] MO-04 Aye
Slaughter, Louise [D] NY-28 Nay
Smith, Adam [D] WA-09 No Vote
Smith, Christopher [R] NJ-04 Aye
Smith, Lamar [R] TX-21 Aye
Smith, Nick [R] MI-7 Aye
Snyder, Victor [D] AR-02 Nay
Solis, Hilda [D] CA-32 Nay
Souder, Mark [R] IN-03 Aye
Spratt, John [D] SC-05 Nay
Stark, Fortney [D] CA-13 Nay
Stearns, Clifford [R] FL-06 Aye
Stenholm, Charles [R] TX-17 Aye
Strickland, Ted [D] OH-06 Nay
Stupak, Bart [D] MI-01 Nay
Sullivan, John [R] OK-01 Aye
Sweeney, John [R] NY-20 Aye
Tancredo, Thomas [R] CO-06 Aye
Tanner, John [D] TN-08 Aye
Tauscher, Ellen [D] CA-10 Nay
Tauzin, William [R] LA-3 No Vote
Taylor, Charles [R] NC-11 Aye
Taylor, Gene [D] MS-04 Aye
Terry, Lee [R] NE-02 Aye
Thomas, William [R] CA-22 Aye
Thompson, Bennie [D] MS-02 No Vote
Thompson, C. [D] CA-01 Nay
Thornberry, William [R] TX-13 Aye
Tiahrt, Todd [R] KS-04 Aye
Tiberi, Patrick [R] OH-12 Aye
Tierney, John [D] MA-06 Nay
Toomey, Patrick [R] PA-15 Aye
Towns, Edolphus [D] NY-10 Nay
Turner, James [D] TX-2 Aye
Turner, Michael [R] OH-03 Aye
Udall, Mark [D] CO-02 Nay
Udall, Tom [D] NM-03 Nay
Upton, Frederick [R] MI-06 Aye
Van Hollen, Christopher [D] MD-08 Nay
Velazquez, Nydia [D] NY-12 Nay
Visclosky, Peter [D] IN-01 Nay
Vitter, David [R] LA-1 No Vote
Walden, Greg [R] OR-02 Aye
Walsh, James [R] NY-25 Aye
Wamp, Zach [R] TN-03 Aye
Waters, Maxine [D] CA-35 Nay
Watson, Diane [D] CA-33 Nay
Watt, Melvin [D] NC-12 Nay
Waxman, Henry [D] CA-30 Nay
Weiner, Anthony [D] NY-09 Nay
Weldon, David [R] FL-15 Aye
Weldon, W. [R] PA-07 Aye
Weller, Gerald [R] IL-11 Aye
Wexler, Robert [D] FL-19 Nay
Whitfield, Edward [R] KY-01 Aye
Wicker, Roger [R] MS-01 Aye
Wilson, Addison [R] SC-02 Aye
Wilson, Heather [R] NM-01 Aye
Wolf, Frank [R] VA-10 Aye
Woolsey, Lynn [D] CA-06 Nay
Wu, David [D] OR-01 Nay
Wynn, Albert [D] MD-04 Aye
Young, C. W. [R] FL-10 Aye
Young, Donald [R] AK-00 Aye


IV. Related Links

1. Read the full text of Pledge Protection Act 2004 (PDF)   

2. See similar legislation introduced by Rep. Todd Akin (Pledge Protection Act 2005) in the 109th Congress and (Pledge Protection Act 2002) in the 107th Congress.

3. Examine the Senate version – Pledge Protection Act 2003.

4. Research the Congressional Actions on the Pledge of Allegiance.

5. Pledge of Allegiance History 1887-Today