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1887 - Early Campaign for Patriotism in Public Schools
George T. Balch. Source: goordnance.army.mil (accessed Sep. 19, 2013)
George T. Balch, Auditor of the Board of Education of the City of New York and former Captain and Brevet Lieutenant Colonel in the US Army, writes the handbook Methods of Teaching Patriotism in the Public Schools. His campaign includes the placing of US flags in all public schools, as well as the presentation of tiny US flags to student awarded for good citizenship. He promoted the use of the flag as a tool in the Americanization of foreigners.
Oct. 1888 - The Youth's Companion Campaigns for US Flags in Public Schools
The Youth's Companion, the leading family magazine of the day with a circulation of over 400,000, began a campaign to sell American flags to public schools. "The magazine hoped that the 'Stars and Stripes [might] be hung upon the walls of every home, and of every school room in the land' so that 'patriotism and love of liberty [would] be unceasingly taught.'"
Apr. 1891 - Francis Bellamy Hired to Organize National Public School Celebration
Francis Bellamy. Source: mountmorrisny.com (accessed Sep. 19, 2013)
"In 1891 Daniel Ford, co-owner of the Youth's Companion, hires Francis Bellamy. Bellamy had been the pastor of Boston's Bethany Baptist Church for six years but had run into difficulties with the church because of his increasingly radical economic views and heterodox religious views."
David Morris, PhDThe American Voice 2004: A Pocket Guide to Issues and Allegations, Oct. 7, 2004
"In Apr. 1891... Bellamy announced his resignation [as pastor], and [Daniel] Ford, who admired Bellamy's command of language... agreed to hire Bellamy. Despite having no previous experience in publishing or business, Bellamy was assigned to work with [James B.] Upham in the premium department... Upham's most pressing need in the spring of 1891 was help organizing and publicizing the National Public School Celebration, which was mushrooming into a vast undertaking."
Sep. 1892 - Bellamy's Pledge of Allegiance Is Published
The Pledge of Allegiance handwritten by Francis Bellamy. Source: University of Rochester website (accessed Oct. 2, 2013)
Francis Bellamy writes the "Pledge of Allegiance" and a companion address for publication in the Columbus Day program contained in the Sep. 8, 1892 issue of The Youth's Companion. The published Pledge reads:
"I Pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands; one Nation indivisible, with Liberty and Justice for All."
The Pledge was accompanied by instructions for a salute to be performed as part of the Columbus Day celebrations: "At the words, 'To the Flag,' the right hand is extended gracefully, palm upward, toward the Flag, and remains in this gesture till the end of the affirmation; whereupon all hands immediately drop to the side."
[Editor's Note: In 1957, the US Library of Congress Legislative Reference Service affirmed Francis Bellamy as the author of the Pledge.]
Oct. 1892 - Pledge Publicized on Columbus Day
The Pledge first receives national publicity through the official program of the National Public School Celebration of Columbus Day in Oct. 1892. During the Celebration it was repeated by public school students across the nation.
Children performing the original flag salute used in US schools. Source: mentalfloss.com, Jan. 7, 2012
George Balch's next writing project is published one year after his death. It is described as a patriotic primer, and is focused on teaching that "the first step in learning how to govern ourselves is to learn how to obey," and recommends training "us in such habits of behavior as will best fit us to become good members of civil society and patriotic American citizens."
The primer also includes "The American Patriotic Salute," which is considered "the first known organized flag salute designed for use in American public schools." In the salute espoused in the primer, "students touched first their foreheads, then their hearts, reciting together 'We give our Heads! -- and our Hearts! -- to God! and our Country!' Then... with their right arms outstretched and slightly elevated, palm down, in the direction of the flag, they completed the salute: 'One Country! One Language! One Flag!'"
Apr. 22, 1898 - First Law Requiring Pledge Recitation in Schools Passed in New York
"The first flag salute statute [requiring children in public schools to recite the Pledge of Allegiance] was passed in New York in 1898 [introduced as Senate Bill 556 by New York State Senator Henry Coggeshall], the day after the United States declared war on Spain... [W]hen New York's state superintendent came to draw up the required Manual of Patriotism, he included not one but five possible 'patriotic pledges' that teachers might use in their classes. One of these was Bellamy's," but it was placed fifth.
The United States enters World War I, triggering an unprecedented demand for flags. Between Apr. 1916 and May 1917 the price of flags increases 100 to 300 percent. Many new flag manufacturing companies are established. Flag events, such as school pageants featuring the flag and displays at sporting events, are designed to rile patriotic support. Business leaders join in by producing and distributing pamphlets celebrating the flag. Major league baseball begins playing "The Star Spangled Banner" at all games in support of the military.
A few prosecutions began of individuals for desecrating or insulting the flag, in violation of some state laws. The Kansas Supreme Court rules such laws were legal. E.V. Starr is sentenced to 10 years in prison in Montana for making disparaging comments about the flag.
June 14-15, 1923 - National Flag Code Adopted at National Flag Conference, Includes Pledge
Responding to the invitation of Garland W. Powell, the American Legion's Director of the Americanism Commission, the National Flag Conference begins on Flag Day (June 14) in Washington, DC. It consists of representatives of 68 civic, fraternal, business, veterans, hereditary, educational, religious, and labor organizations, as well as representatives of the Army and Navy. President Warren Harding addresses the group, which develops and adopts a Flag Code, declaring the flag "a living symbol of a living nation."
Bellamy's "Pledge of Allegiance" is included in the Flag Code [Title 4, United States Code, Chapter 1], although the words are amended from "I pledge allegiance to my flag" to "I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States."
Most major American newspapers publish the Flag Code following the conference, and the American Legion distributes 300,000 copies throughout the nation. 51 additional organizations join the movement to distribute copies of the Flag Code throughout the United States.
Boy Scouts Official Handbook, First Edition, 1910. Source: troop97.net (accessed Sep. 19, 2013)
The 2nd (and final) National Flag Conference is held.
The Pledge of Allegiance is amended, changing the words "I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States" to "I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America."
The Boy Scouts publish the Flag Code in their official handbook [earlier editions had mentioned flag etiquette also]. The American Legion has now distributed an estimated six million pamphlets on flag etiquette to schools, churches and public officials. In total, more than 14 million pamphlets have been distributed nationwide by various organizations.
28 states have by now accepted the Flag Code for school instruction.
June 3, 1940 - Supreme Court Rules That Students Can Be Expelled for Refusing to Recite Pledge
The US Supreme Court rules (8-1) in Minersville School District v. Gobitis(PDF) (62 KB), that a local school board could expel students who refuse to recite the Pledge. "Over the next two years a wave of anti-Jehovah's Witness hysteria developed because members of this religious group refused to recite the Pledge. The Jehovah's Witnesses believed that saluting the Flag and reciting the Pledge were forbidden by the bible [Exodus, Chapt. 20]."
School children in Southington, CT pledging their allegiance to the flag in May 1942. Library of Congress, loc.gov, May 23-30, 1942
"On June 22, 1942, the U.S. Flag Code became the law of the land. A joint resolution passed by Congress made the code Public Law 829 (Chapter 806, 77th Congress, 2nd session). The law sets out the rules for use and display of the flag, conduct during the playing of the national anthem, and the words of the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag (Bellamy's) to be recited. The flag code also contained the raised-arm salute (as prescribed during the 1924 Flag Day conference)."
Jeffrey Owen Jones and Peter Meyer, The Pledge: A History of the Pledge of Allegiance, 2010
[Editor's Note: The Flag Code stipulated that the flag salute "be rendered by standing with the right hand over the heart; extending the right hand, palm upward, toward the flag at the words ‘to the flag’ and holding this position until the end, when the hand drops to the side."]
Dec. 22, 1942 - Congress Changes Flag Salute to Hand over Heart Instead of Straight Arm Salute
Schoolchildren performing the revised flag salute. Source: mentalfloss.com, Jan. 7, 2012
Congress amends the Flag Code, substituting the original straight arm salute with the current salute of "the right hand over the heart. Congress apparently was embarrassed by the similarity between the original Flag salute and the Nazi salute."
The code now reads "The Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag... should be rendered by standing at attention facing the flag with the right hand over the heart. When not in uniform men should remove their headdress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart. Persons in uniform should remain silent, face the flag, and render the military salute."
June 14, 1943 - Supreme Court Rules That Children Cannot Be Forced to Recite Pledge
The US Supreme Court, in West Virginia State Board of Education et al. v. Barnette et al.(110KB), rules 6-3 that children could not be forced to say the Pledge of Allegiance in school. Justice Robert H. Jackson wrote in his opinion, "If there is any fixed star in our constitutional constellation, it is that no official, high or petty, can prescribe what shall be orthodox in politics, nationalism, religion or other matters of opinion or force citizens to confess by word or act their faith therein."
Feb. 12, 1948 - Sons of the American Revolution Chaplain Includes 'under God' in Pledge Recitation
Louis A. Bowman, a member of the Board of Governors of the Illinois Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, and its Chaplain, leads the group in the Pledge of Allegiance with the words "under God" added. The National Society of Daughters of the American Revolution gives him an Award of Merit as "the originator of the [under God] idea."
[Editor's Note: Bowman explains that the words "under God" were first used extemporaneously in Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, even though those words "do not appear in his written draft."]
Apr. 22, 1951 - Knights of Columbus Add 'Under God' to Pledge Recited at Meetings
"The organized movement for adding 'under God' to the Pledge of Allegiance can be traced to a resolution adopted by the [Knights of Columbus'] national board of directors in April 1951, at the height of the Korean War. The resolution called on all Knights to add the words 'under God' to the Pledge customarily recited at the openings of local meetings."
1952-1954 - Hearst Campaigns to Add 'Under God' to Pledge
Louis A. Bowman repeats his revised Pledge at several other meetings of the Sons of the American Revolution. After one meeting in 1952, member John F. McKillip writes about the "under God" addition to his former employer, the newspaper tycoon William R. Hearst, Jr. The Hearst Newspapers begin a campaign to add "under God" to the US Pledge of Allegiance.
1953 - House and Senate Introduce Bills to Add 'Under God' to Pledge
Federal legislators are lobbied by religious leaders from the Knights of Columbus, as well as the Hearst Newspapers and the American Legion, who are "worried that orations used by 'godless communists' sound similar to the Pledge of Allegiance." A bill to add "under God" to the Pledge of Allegiance is introduced in the House by Rep. Louis Rabaut (D-MI), and in the Senate by Sen. Homer Ferguson (R-MI).
May 11, 1954 - Library of Congress Makes Recommendation Concerning the Pledge
Congress considers three variations of the "under God" phrase:
"One Nation under God,"
"One Nation, under God," and
"One Nation indivisible under God."
Congress accepts variation #1 based on a recommendation from the Library of Congress, which states, "Since the basic idea is a Nation founded on a belief in God, there would seem to be no reason for the comma after Nation."
June 14, 1954 - President Eisenhower Signs Law Adding 'Under God' to Pledge
President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Source: biography.com (accessed Sep. 19, 2013)
The words "under God" are inserted into the Pledge. The legislation [Public Law 396, 83d Congress] is supported by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, "fearing an atomic war between the U.S. and the Soviet Union," who signs the bill. President Eisenhower says: "In this way we are reaffirming the transcendence of religious faith in America's heritage and future; in this way we shall constantly strengthen those spiritual weapons which forever will be our country's most powerful resource in peace and war." The new Pledge reads:
"I Pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all."
June 17, 1963 - Supreme Court States That Reciting Pledge May Not Be a Religious Exercise
The US Supreme Court in Abington v. Schempp ruled 8-1 that government mandated Bible reading in public schools was unconstitutional, but stated: "The reference to divinity in the revised pledge of allegiance, for example, may merely recognize the historical fact that our Nation was believed to have been founded 'under God.' Thus reciting the pledge may be no more of a religious exercise than the reading aloud of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, which contains an allusion to the same historical fact." (Id. at 303-04 -- Brennan, J., concurring)
July 5, 1983 - Supreme Court Says 'Under God' Does Not Violate Establishment Clause
The US Supreme Court in Marsh v. Chambers ruled 6-3 that sessions of the Nebraska state legislature could begin with a prayer given by a publicly funded chaplain because, over time, the practice had become a communication of shared values rather than a decidedly religious practice. Justice William J. Brennan repeated his conviction that the phrase "under God" in the Pledge of Allegiance did not violate the Establishment Clause because those words "have lost any true religious significance." (ID. at 818 -- Brennan, J., dissenting)
Mar. 5, 1984 - 'Under God' Referenced in Supreme Court Nativity Scene Ruling
The US Supreme Court in Lynch v. Donnelly ruled 5-4 that the city of Pawtucket in Rhode Island could continue to display a nativity scene as part of its Christmas display. In this decision, the Court held that the city had not violated the Establishment Clause because the display depicted the historical origins of Christmas and had "legitimate secular purposes." Declining to take a "rigid, absolutist view of the Establishment Clause," the court declared that each case is to be independently checked to determine whether the intent is secular or religious. Religion in general may be advanced by the government in some cases so long as there is no administrative entanglement with religion. The Court listed many examples of our "Government's acknowledgment of our religious heritage," and included Congress' addition of the words "under God" in the Pledge of Allegiance. (Id. at 676-77)
June 4, 1985 - Supreme Court Says 'Under God' Not Unconstitutional
The US Supreme Court in Wallace v. Jaffree ruled 6-3 to invalidate Alabama's moment of silence statute. Justice Sandra Day O'Connor said the inclusion of the words "under God" in the Pledge is not unconstitutional because they "serve as an acknowledgment of religion with the legitimate secular purpose of solemnizing public occasions, and expressing confidence in the future." (Id. at 78 n.5 -- O'Connor, J., concurring)
Sep. 13, 1988 - US House Begins Pledge Recitations
Sonny Montgomery (D-MS) became the first Congressman to lead the US House of Representatives in citing the Pledge of Allegiance as a permanent part of its daily business operations.
During the 1988 US presidential campaign, candidate George Bush criticized candidate Michael Dukakis for his veto of a Massachusetts state bill to require the Pledge of Allegiance in all public schools in that state. House Republicans (then in the minority) surprised their chamber by offering a privileged resolution to require that each House day commence with the Pledge.
Then-Speaker Jim Wright (D-TX) came to the floor and chastised Republicans for using the Pledge of Allegiance to make a partisan point, saying, "I think it is very important that all of us recognize that the Pledge of Allegiance to the flag is something intended to unite us, not intended to divide us." However, with electoral sensitivities in mind, Speaker Wright then went on to announce he would call upon the chairman of the House Veterans' Committee, Sonny Montgomery (D-MS), to offer the Pledge when the House next met.
July 3, 1989 - Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy References Pledge
US Supreme Court Associate Justice Anthony Kennedy. Source: biography.com (accessed Sep. 19, 2013)
The US Supreme Court in Allegheny County v. ACLU ruled 5-4 (to strike) on the display of a creche at a courthouse and 6-3 (to uphold) on the display of a menorah at a county building. Justice Kennedy, in his dissent, said "To be sure, no one is obligated to recite this phrase ["one nation under God"]... but it borders on sophistry to suggest that the 'reasonable' atheist would not feel less than a 'full membe[r] of the political community' every time his fellow Americans recited, as part of their expression of patriotism and love for country, a phrase he believed to be false." (Id. at 673)
Jan. 24, 1992 - Seventh Circuit Court Rules That Students May Opt Out of Reciting Pledge
The US Illinois Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals, in Sherman v. Community Consolidated School District 21, ruled against plaintiff Robert Sherman, concluding that "that schools may lead the Pledge of Allegiance daily, so long as pupils are free not to participate."
June 24, 1992 - Supreme Court Declares School Prayers Unconstitutional
The US Supreme Court in Lee v. Weisman ruled 5-4 that prayers during school graduation violated the Establishment Clause.
In his dissent, Associate Justice Antonin Scalia stated that "since the Pledge of Allegiance has been revised... to include the phrase 'under God,' recital of the Pledge would appear to raise the same Establishment Clause issue" as the prayers. "If students were psychologically coerced to remain standing during the invocation, they must also have been psychologically coerced, moments before, to stand for (and thereby, in the Court's view, take part in or appear to take part in) the Pledge. Must the Pledge therefore be barred from the public schools (both from graduation ceremonies and from the classroom)?"
June 24, 1999 - Daily Pledge Recitation Instituted in US Senate
Sen. Bob Smith (I-NH) introduced a resolution (S.Res. 113) to begin reciting the Pledge in the Senate. The resolution to amend the Standing Rules of the Senate and institute a daily Pledge was adopted by the unanimous consent of the Senate on June 23, 1999. The Pledge of Allegiance will be recited daily in the Senate by its Presiding Officer, or another Senator designated for that purpose.
Mar. 14, 2001 - Michael Newdow Files Suit Arguing That 'Under God' in Pledge Is Unconstitutional
Michael A. Newdow, an emergency room physician who also earned a law degree from the University of Michigan, files a lawsuit arguing that having the words "under God" in the Pledge of Allegiance is unconstitutional.
June 27, 2002 - Ninth Circuit Court Declares Pledge to Be 'Impermissible Government Endorsement of Religion'
"A panel of Ninth Circuit judges holds [in a 2-1 decision] that the phrase 'under God' violates the First Amendment's prohibition of government sponsorship of religion."
Alfred T. Goodwin - Opinion [Appointed by: President Nixon, 1971]
Stephen Reinhardt - Concur [Appointed by: President Carter, 1980]
Ferdinand F. Fernandez - Partial Concurrence and Partial Dissent [Appointed by: President Bush, 1989]
The majority opinion by Judge Alfred T. Goodwin states:
"[N]o official, high or petty, can prescribe what shall be orthodox in politics, nationalism, religion, or other matters of opinion or force citizens to confess by word or act their faith therein. The Pledge, as currently codified, is an impermissible government endorsement of religion because it sends a message to unbelievers 'that they are outsiders, not full members of the political community, and an accompanying message to adherents that they are insiders, favored members of the political community.'"
Aug. 9, 2002 - Justice Department Appeals to Ninth Circuit for 'en banc' rehearing
The US Justice department files an appeal with the US Ninth Circuit. The appeal "requests an 'en banc' rehearing before the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals, meaning that an 11-judge panel is asked to consider the case as opposed to the [only] three judge panel that issued a 2-1 ruling."
Oct. 30, 2002 - President Bush Signs Bill Supporting 'Under God' in the Pledge
President George W. Bush reciting the Pledge of Allegiance. Source: telegraph.co.uk, Mar. 25, 2004
US President [George W.] Bush signs a bill "reaffirming -- with a slap at the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals -- references to God in the Pledge of Allegiance and the national motto." The bill is approved unanimously in the Senate, with only five "no" votes in the House. The bill is, in effect, a show of support, and carries no legal weight.
Mar. 4, 2003 - Judge Issues Stay in 'Under God' Case
9th Circuit Court of Appeals Judge Alfred T. Goodwin, a President Richard Nixon appointee, "issued a 90-day stay, which allows schoolchildren in nine Western states to continue reciting the [under God] Pledge, pending a decision by the Supreme Court on whether it will review the case."
May 20, 2003 - House Passes Resolution Challenging Ninth Circuit Decision
House Resolution 132 expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruling in Newdow v. United States Congress is inconsistent with the Supreme Court's interpretation of the first amendment and should be overturned, passed by a vote of 400-7.
June 14, 2004 - Supreme Court Overturns Ninth Circuit Decision
Michael Newdow outside the US Supreme Court in 2004. Source: usatoday.com, Jan. 9, 2009
"A unanimous Supreme Court ruled [8-0] yesterday that the phrase 'under God' may remain in the Pledge of Allegiance as recited in public school classrooms. But the Flag Day decision fell far short of the clear endorsement of the pledge's constitutionality that President Bush and leaders of both parties in Congress had sought.
While all eight justices who participated in the case voted to overturn a 2003 federal appeals court decision that would have barred the phrase in public schools as a violation of the constitutional ban on state-sponsored religion, a majority of five did so exclusively on procedural grounds, ruling that the atheist who brought the case, Michael A. Newdow, lacked legal standing to sue.
Newdow had claimed that his right to influence his daughter's religious views was infringed by daily teacher-led recitations of the pledge in her Sacramento-area public school. But the five justices noted that the child is caught in the middle of a custody dispute between Newdow and Sandra Banning, who wants her daughter to recite the pledge...
...The ruling leaves the door open to another case challenging recitation of the pledge in the schools, but it would take years for such a case to work its way to the Supreme Court."
Washington Post "Justices Keep 'Under God' in Pledge," washingtonpost.com, June 15, 2004
Sep. 23, 2004 - US House Passes Bill to Protect Pledge
The US House of Representatives voted 247-173 to pass the Pledge Protection Act 2004 (H.R. 2028). The introductory language of the bill states that its purpose is: "To amend title 28, United States Code, with respect to the jurisdiction of Federal courts over certain cases and controversies involving the Pledge of Allegiance." The bill was passed to the Senate, but no further action was taken.
"An atheist who sued because he did not want his young daughter exposed to the words 'under God' in the Pledge of Allegiance has filed another lawsuit - this time with other parents.
The plaintiff, Michael Newdow, won his case more than two years ago before a federal appeals court, which said it was an unconstitutional blending of church and state for public school students to pledge to God.
In June, the Supreme Court dismissed the case, saying Dr. Newdow could not lawfully sue because he did not have custody of his elementary-school-age daughter and because her mother objected to the lawsuit.
In the latest challenge, which was filed Monday in federal court in Sacramento, eight co-plaintiffs have joined the suit, and all are custodial parents or the children themselves, Dr. Newdow said...
'I want this decided on its merits,' said Dr. Newdow, a doctor and a lawyer, who again is the lawyer in the latest pledge case."
Sep. 29, 2005 - House Passes Resolution Calling for Supreme Court to Uphold Pledge
House Concurrent Resolution 245 expressing the sense of Congress that "the United States Supreme Court should at the earliest opportunity" recognize "the importance and Constitutional propriety of the recitation of the Pledge of Allegiance by school children." The resolution passed 383-31.
July 19, 2006 - Pledge Protection Act Passes in House
Pledge Protection Act 2005 (H.R. 2389) that would amend title 28, United States Code, with respect to the jurisdiction of Federal courts over certain cases and controversies involving the Pledge of Allegiance, passed 260-167.
The bill was introduced to the Senate as S.1046 but the 109th Congress (2006-2007) never voted on the issue.
Jan. 29, 2007 - 2007 Pledge Protection Act Introduced to House
Representative Todd Akin (R-MO) introduces the 2007 Pledge Protection Act (H. R. 699) to the first session of the 110th Congress. The bill is referred to the House Committee on the Judiciary, and then to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. No further action was taken.
Dec. 4, 2007 - Ninth Circuit Hears Second Newdow Case
Following appeals to the Sep. 14, 2005 decision by Rio Linda Union School District, the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty, and the United States of America, oral arguments for Newdow et al. v. Rio Linda Union School District et al. took place in front of a three-judge panel at the US Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit in San Francisco, CA. The judges to hear the case were Dorothy W. Nelson, Stephen Reinhardt, and Carlos T. Bea.
Mar. 11, 2010 - Ninth Circuit Upholds 'Under God' in Second Newdow Case
"In Mr. Newdow’s latest case against 'under God' in the Pledge, the Ninth US Circuit Court of Appeals panel ruled, in a 2-to-1 decision, that the schoolroom routine for millions of children is not a violation of the Constitution, but a historical reflection of the Founding Fathers' beliefs that 'serves to unite our vast nation.'
'Not every mention of God or religion by our government or at the government’s direction is a violation of the Establishment Clause,' wrote Judge Carlos Bea for the majority in the opinion that was issued Thursday.
'Without knowing the history behind these words, one might well think the phrase 'one Nation under God' could not be anything but religious,' wrote Judge Bea. 'History, however, shows these words have an even broader meaning, one grounded in philosophy and politics and reflecting many events of historical significance.'"
"Every attempt to eliminate the mention of God [in the Pledge] has thus far failed, but the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts will hear arguments on Wednesday [Sep. 4, 2013] seeking removal of the two words for a new reason: discrimination.
'This is the first challenge of its kind' said Roy Speckhardt, the executive director of the American Humanist Association, an atheist group arguing for the plaintiffs. 'We feel very confident that we have a strong case.'
That case, which was brought by an unidentified family of a student at a school in suburban Boston, will be argued on the premise that the pledge violates the Equal Rights Amendment of the Massachusetts Constitution. It is the first such case to be tried on the state level: All previous attempts have been argued in federal court on the grounds that 'under God' was an unconstitutional violation of the separation of church and state."
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