Con to the question "Should the Words "under God" Be in the US Pledge of Allegiance?"
"The peoples of our nation are not united in their understanding of the meaning of the word 'God,' or even in their understanding of what it would mean for this Court to reverse the Ninth Circuit's decision. In fact, contemporary arguments about the meaning of the word 'God' are rife with particularized religious content. In such an environment, this Court should not sanction a Pledge of Allegiance that separates Americans into the preferred and the marginalized. That is, the reversal of the holding of the court below would continue to divide the nation's school children into what Amicus has referred to elsewhere as the 'accepted diversity' and the 'excepted diversity.' RASG at 159-160...
...In other words, it is because ours is a nation of individuals under God, or more accurately, it is because ours is a nation grounded in each individual's relationship with the Divine (however conceived by conscience), that a policy requiring teachers to lead school children in the recitation of a Pledge of Allegiance, which includes the words 'under God,' is unconstitutional."
Amicus Court Brief of Barbara A. McGraw,
Elk Grove United School District v. Michael A. Newdow, Feb. 13, 2004
Experts JD's (lawyers), US Presidents, federal appellate opinions, US Founding Fathers, Members of Congress, members of state legislative bodies with significant involvement in, or related to, the "under God" conflict and/or government and constitutional law, and those with PhD's in government, constitutional law or other relevant fields. [Note: Experts definition varies by site.]
Involvement and Affiliations:
Professor, Saint Mary's College of California, 2005-present
Chevron/Texaco Professorship in Social Ethics, Saint Mary's College of California, 2003-2006
Finalist in Religion and Politics Division Book Award Competition, for Rediscovering America's Sacred Ground: Public Religion and Pursuit of the Good in a Pluralistic America (SUNY Press, 2003), 2005
Associate Professor, Saint Mary's College of California, 2000-2005
Assistant Professor, Saint Mary's College of California, 1998-2000
Phi Kappa Phi (Highest Honors), University of Southern California Chapter of National Honor Fraternity, 1997
Northrop Grumman Business Ethics Fellowship, 1997
Department Fellow, School of Religion, University of Southern California, 1997
Teaching Assistant, School of Religion and School of Philosophy, University of Southern California, 1994-1997
Fellowship, Dean of College of Letters, Arts, and Sciences, University of Southern California, 1993-1997
Attorney, finance for mergers and acquisitions, Skadden, Slate, Meagher & Flom, Los Angeles, 1986-1991
Attorney, antitrust litigation and counseling, Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton, Los Angeles, 1984-1986
Order of the Coif (Highest Honors), University of Southern California Law Center, 1984
Judge Nelson Administrative Justice Award, University of Southern California Law Center, 1984
Judicial Externship with District Court Judge Malcolm Lucas (Became Chief Justice of the California Supreme Court in 1984), 1984
Southern California Law Review, Editorial Staff Member, University of Southern California Law Center, 1982-1984
PhD, Religion and Social Ethics, University of Southern California, 1999