Experts JD's (lawyers), US Presidents, federal appellate opinions, US Founding Fathers, Members of Congress, members of state legislative bodies with significant involvement in, or related to, the "under God" conflict and/or government and constitutional law, and those with PhD's in government, constitutional law or other relevant fields. [Note: Experts definition varies by site.]
Involvement and Affiliations:
Second President, United States, 1797-1801
Vice President, United States, under George Washington, 1789-1797
Minister to the Court of St. James, London, 1785-1788
Served in France and Holland in diplomatic roles, and helped negotiate the treaty of peace between the U.S. and Great Britain, 1777-1782
Elected to the General Court, lower house of the Massachusetts legislature, 1770
Former clerk, Suffolk County Bar Association, 1770
Defended British Captain Thomas Preston, who is said to have ordered British troops to fire upon citizens in what became known as "The Boston Massacre," 1770
Wrote a protest on behalf of his town against the Stamp Act, 1765
Began to publish a series of newspaper essays entitled, "Dissertation On Canon and Feudal Law," 1765
Gained a place in the community ruling organization Braintree Town Meeting, 1761
Admitted to the bar (after studying under James Putnam), 1758
BA, Harvard University, 1755
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Born on October 30, 1735 in Braintree, (now known as Quincy) Massachusetts on the family farm. John was named after his father, a deacon of the church and a farmer. His father was also, at times, the town's tax collector, selectman, constable and lieutenant of the militia.
In 1764, Adams married Abigail Smith on October 25. At the time John was 28 and his bride was 19. Abigail was the first First Lady to live in the White House and is regarded as one of the early advocates of the women's liberation movement. Abigail and John had four children live to maturity. She was the first First Lady to have a son become President. Abigail died of typhoid fever on October 28, 1818, just after the Adams' fifty-fourth anniversary.
After the Presidency, Adams retired to his farm in Quincy where he penned his famous letters to Thomas Jefferson. Here on July 4, 1826, he whispered his last words: "Thomas Jefferson survives." But Jefferson had died at Monticello a few hours earlier.