Associated Press writer Jim Abrams reported on July 20, 2006:
"Legislation [Pledge Protection Act aka H. R. 2389] to bar federal courts from ruling on constitutional issues arising from the Pledge of Allegiance, including the 'one nation, under God' reference, passed the House after lawmakers argued that the pledge is linked to the nation's spiritual history.
Opponents countered that such a law, a priority of social conservatives, would undercut judicial independence and deny access to federal courts to religious minorities seeking to defend their rights." July 20, 2006 Associated Press
Rep. Todd Akin, Republican from Missouri, introduced the House Bill HR 2389 known as the Pledge Protection Act 2005 on May 17, 2005. It would amend title 28 of United States Code with respect to the jurisdiction of Federal courts over certain cases and controversies involving the Pledge of Allegiance. On July 19, 2006 the bill passed the House of Representatives by roll call vote. On Aug. 4, 2004 it was recieved by the Senate. This bill is identical to S.1046 which was intoduced on May 17, 2005 but has not passed. The 109th Senate is expected to end Oct. 6, 2006.