Video exploring critical thinking and how it leads to great citizen involvement

Capitol BuildingThe June 26, 2002 court decision in Newdow v. US increased Congressional activity relating to the Pledge of Allegiance's "under God" phrase.

The chart below details the actions of the 110th Congress (2007-2008), 109th Congress (2005-2006), 108th Congress (2003-2004) and the 107th Congress (2001-2002) concerning the Pledge of Allegiance, presented in chronological order by date introduced. Click on a bill to see a more detailed description including recorded vote, co-sponsors, and the full text.

See the related Senate Voting Master List and the House Voting Master List.

I. 110th Congress

Bill Sponsor Date Introduced Description
1. Pledge Language is English Declaration and Government Endorsement Act of 2008 (H.R. 6783) Rep. Paul C. Broun (R-GA) Aug. 1, 2008
Requires the government to withhold federal funds from schools that permit or require the recitation of the Pledge of Allegiance or National Anthem in a language other than English.
2. Loyalty to Our Legacy Act of 2007 (S. 2409) Sen. Jim DeMint (R-SC) Dec. 5, 2007
Requires the Pledge of Allegiance and "In God We Trust" to be displayed prominently and permanently in the Capitol Visitor Center. The bill would also prohibit the architect of the Capitol to refuse including language or content relating to the Capitol Visitor Center on the grounds that the language or content includes religious or Judeo-Christian content.
3. Loyalty to Our Legacy Act of 2007 (H.R. 3908)
Rep. Marilyn Musgrave (R-CO) Oct. 18, 2007
Requires the Pledge of Allegiance and "In God We Trust" to be displayed prominently and permanently in the Capitol Visitor Center. The bill would also prohibit the architect of the Capitol to refuse including language or content relating to the Capitol Visitor Center on the grounds that the language or content includes religious or Judeo-Christian content.
4. 2007 Pledge Protection Act Rep. Todd Akin
(R-MO)
Jan. 29, 2007 Amends the federal judicial code to deny jurisdiction to any federal court, and appellate jurisdiction to the Supreme Court, to hear or decide any question pertaining to the interpretation of the Pledge of Allegiance or its validity under the Constitution.

 


II. 109th Congress

Bill Sponsor Date Introduced Description
1. Safeguarding Our Religious Liberties Act Rep. Charles Pickering
(R-MS)
Dec. 16, 2005 Amends title 28, United States Code, with respect to the jurisdiction of Federal courts over certain cases and controversies involving the Ten Commandments, the Pledge of Allegiance, and the National Motto.
2. House Concurrent Resolution 253 Rep. Henry Bonilla
(R-TX)
Sep. 27, 2005 Expresses the sense of the Congress that reciting the pledge of allegiance by students attending public schools contributes to the moral foundation of our Nation and urges the Supreme Court to uphold the pledge's constitutionality.
3. House Resolution 453 Rep. Thaddeus McCotter
(R-MI)
Sep. 20, 2005 Expresses the sense of the House of Representatives with respect to Newdow v. United States Congress.
4. Senate Resolution 244 Sen. Ken Salazar
(D-CO)
Sep. 15, 2005 Expresses Support for the Pledge of Allegiance. It was considered, and agreed to without amendment, and with a preamble, by Unanimous Consent.
5. Senate Resolution 243 Sen. Jim Talent
(R-MO)
Sep. 15, 2005 Expresses Support for the Pledge of Allegiance. It was considered, and agreed to without amendment, and with a preamble, by Unanimous Consent.
6. House Concurrent Resolution 245 Rep. Darrell Issa
(R-CA)
Sep. 15, 2005 Expresses the sense of Congress that the United States Supreme Court should speedily find the use of the Pledge of Allegiance in schools to be consistent with the Constitution of the United States. On Sep. 29, 2005 the bill passed the House of Representatives by roll call vote.
7. Senate Joint Resolution 24 Sen. Mary Landrieu
(D-LA)
Sep. 14, 2005 Proposes an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relative to the reference to God in the Pledge of Allegiance and on United States currency.
8. House Joint Resolution 57 Rep. Ernest Istook
(R-OK)
June 30, 2005 Proposes an amendment to the Constitution of the United States protecting religious freedom.
9. Veterans' Memorials, Boy Scouts, Public Seals, and Other Public Expressions of Religion Protection Act of 2006 Rep. John Hostettler
(R-IN)
May 26, 2005 Stops courts from awarding attorney fees to be paid for by defendants to plaintiffs in Pledge and other related cases. On Sep. 26, 2006 the bill passed the House of Representatives.
10. House Pledge Protection Act 2005 Rep. Todd Akin
(R-MO)
May 17, 2005 Bars federal courts from ruling on constitutional issues arising from the Pledge of Allegiance, including the 'one nation, under God' reference. On July 19, 2006 the bill passed the House of Representatives.
11. Senate Pledge Protection Act 2005 Sen. Jon Kyl
(R-AZ)
May 17, 2005 Bars federal courts from ruling on constitutional issues arising from the Pledge of Allegiance, including the 'one nation, under God' reference.

 


III. 108th Congress

Bill Sponsor Date Introduced Description
1. Senate Resolution 378 Sen. John Cornyn
(R-TX)
June 14, 2004 Designates June 14, 2004, as `National Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag Day' and shows support for the pledge in the Senate where it was considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent.
2. Safeguarding Our Religious Liberties Act Rep. Charles Pickering
(R-MS)
Sep. 25, 2003 Declares that among those powers reserved to the States and their political subdivisions are the powers to display the Ten Commandments, to recite the Pledge of Allegiance, and to recite the national motto on or within property owned or administered by them.
3. Religious Liberties Restoration Act Sen. Wayne Allard
(R-CO)
Aug. 1, 2003 Restores religious liberties such as displaying the 10 Commandments, Pledge of Allegiance, and "In God We Trust" motto.
4. Pledge Protection Act 2003 Sen. Orrin Hatch
(R-UT)
Jun. 19, 2003 Amends title 28 of the United States Code with respect to the jurisdiction of Federal courts inferior to the Supreme Court over certain cases and controversies involving the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag.
5. Pledge Protection Act 2004 Rep. Todd Akin
(R-MO)
May 8, 2003 Amends title 28 of the United States Code with respect to the jurisdiction of Federal courts inferior to the Supreme Court over certain cases and controversies involving the Pledge of Allegiance. On Sep. 23, 2004 the bill passed the House of Representatives by roll call vote.
6. House Resolution 132 Rep. Doug Ose
(R-CA)
May 6, 2003 Expresses the sense of the House of Representatives that the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruling in Newdow v. United States Congress is inconsistent with the Supreme Court's interpretation of the first amendment and should be overturned. On May 20, 2003 the bill passed the House of Representatives by roll call vote.
7. House Joint Resolution 46 Rep. Ernest Istook
(R-OK)
Apr. 9, 2003 Proposes an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to restore religious liberties such as Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag, the display of the Ten Commandments, and voluntary school prayer.
8. House Joint Resolution 40 Rep. Charles Pickering
(R-MS)
Mar. 18, 2003 Proposes an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to guarantee the right to use and recite the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag and the national motto.
9. House Joint Resolution 39 Rep. John Carter
(R-TX)
Mar. 13, 2003 Proposes an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relative to references to God in the Pledge of Allegiance and on United States coins and currency
10. Senate Resolution 71 Sen. Lisa Murkowski
(R-AK)
Mar. 4, 2003 Expresses support for the Pledge of Allegiance where it was agreed to, with an amendment and with a preamble, by a Yea-Nay Vote.
11. Senate Joint Resolution 7 Sen. Mary Landrieu
(D-LA)
Mar. 3, 2003 Proposes an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relative to the reference to God in the Pledge of Allegiance and on United States currency.
12. House Joint Resolution 26 Rep. Frank Lucas
(R-OK)
Feb. 27, 2003 Proposes an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to protect the Pledge of Allegiance.

 


IV. 107th Congress

Bill Sponsor Date Introduced Description
1. Senate Joint Resolution 43 Sen. Trent Lott
(R-MS)
Aug. 1, 2002 Proposes an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to guarantee the right to use and recite the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag and the national motto.
2. House Joint Resolution 108 Rep. Charles Pickering
(R-MS)
July 25, 2002 Proposes an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to guarantee the right to use and recite the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag and the national motto.
3. Pledge Protection Act 2002 Rep. Todd Akin
(R-MO)
July 8, 2002 Amends title 28 of the United States Code, with respect to the jurisdiction of Federal courts inferior to the Supreme Court over certain cases and controversies involving the Pledge of Allegiance.
4. Senate Bill 2690 Sen. Tim Hutchinson
(R-AR)
June 27, 2002 Reaffirms the reference to "one Nation, under God" in the Pledge of Allegiance. This bill passed in the Senate by a roll call vote. The Bill was later approved by the House on Oct. 8, 2002 and became Public Law No: 107-293 on Nov. 13, 2002.
5. House Joint Resolution 104 Rep. Frank Lucas
(R-OK)
June 27, 2002 Proposes an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to protect the Pledge of Allegiance.
6. House Joint Resolution 103 Rep. Raymond Green
(D-TX)
June 27, 2002 Proposes an amendment to the Constitution of the United States with respect to the Pledge of Allegiance.
7. Senate Resolution 292 Sen. Thomas Daschle
(D-SD)
June 27, 2002 Expresses support for the Pledge of Allegiance. This bill passed in the Senate by a roll call vote.
8. Senate Joint Resolution 39 Sen. Mary Landrieu
(D-LA)
June 26, 2002 Proposes an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relative to the reference to God in the Pledge of Allegiance and on United States currency.
9. House Resolution 466 Rep. Steve Israel
(D-NY)
June 26, 2002 Expresses the sense of the House of Representatives that reciting the Pledge of Allegiance in schools is constitutional, that the Congress deplores the decision of the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals, and that the House of Representatives encourages every American to start their day by reciting the Pledge.
10. House Resolution 459 Rep. James Sensenbrenner
(R-WI)
June 26, 2002 Expresses the sense of the House of Representatives that Newdow v. U.S. Congress was erroneously decided. On June 27, 2002 the bill passed the House of Representatives by roll call vote.
11. House Joint Resolution 102 Rep. Charles Pickering
(R-MS)
June 26, 2002 Proposes an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to guarantee the right to recite the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag.
12. House Concurrent Resolution 430 Rep. Bob Riley
(R-AL)
June 26, 2002 Expresses the sense of the Congress concerning the recitation of the Pledge of Allegiance.
13. House Concurrent Resolution 428 Rep. Van Hilleary
(R-TN)
June 26, 2002 Expresses the sense of the Congress that recitation of the Pledge of Allegiance in schools is constitutional under the First Amendment to the Constitution, and urging the Supreme Court to uphold the constitutionality of such practices.
14. Students' Rights Resolution of 2001 Rep. Lamar Smith
(R-TX)
June 21, 2001 Proposes recognizing the authority of public schools to allow students to exercise their constitutional rights by establishing a period of time for silent prayer or meditation or reflection, encouraging the recitation of the Pledge of Allegiance, and refusing to discriminate against individuals or groups on account of their religious character or speech.

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